Is the Sea Level Stable at Aden, Yemen?

Abstract

Background

The sea level records since the start of the twentieth century show oscillations with many periodicities up to multi-decadal. The sea level may then change because of local factors such as subsidence or uplift, and global factors such as mass addition and thermal expansion of the oceans.

Purpose

We use non-aligned data from the tide gauges of Aden, and the tide gauges of Mumbai and Karachi, to reconstruct the most likely pattern of sea levels for these three locations of the west Indian Ocean.

Methods

Linear and parabolic fittings of monthly average mean sea levels (MSL) from the different tide gauges of the three locations were carried out. Alignment of the different data sets based on historical information, similarity of patterns, and break point alignment was done.

Results

Analysis of the tide gauge data of Aden, Yemen shows that without arbitrary alignment of data, Aden exhibits very stable sea level conditions like those in Mumbai, India and Karachi, Pakistan, without any significant sea level trend.

Conclusion

The reconstructed tide gauge records of Aden, Mumbai and Karachi are perfectly consistent with multiple lines of evidence from other key sites of the Indian Ocean including Qatar, Maldives, Bangladesh and Visakhapatnam. The sea levels have been stable since the start of the twentieth century in Aden similar to Karachi and Mumbai.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Douglas BC (1991) Global sea level rise. J Geophys Res Oceans 96(C4):6981–6992

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. GLOSS (2004) “IOC/GLOSS/PERSGA/ISESCO technical mission to red sea tide gauge operating agencies 9–20 December 2004. http://www.gloss-sealevel.org/publications/documents/red_sea_visit_report_december_2004.pdf. Document downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  3. GLOSS (2006) UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Technical Survey and Assessment Report, Aden, Republic of Yemen, 8–12th July 2006, document downloaded September 13, 2017

  4. Mörner NA (2007) Sea Level changes and tsunamis, environmental stress and migration overseas: the case of the Maldives and Sri Lanka. In: Internationales Asien Forum. International Quarterly for Asian Studies (Vol. 38, No. 3/4, p. 353). Arnold Bergsträsser Institut

  5. Mörner NA (2010) Sea level changes in Bangladesh new observational facts. Energy Environ 21(3):235–249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Mörner NA (2014) Sea level changes in the 19–20th and 21st centuries. Coordinates 10(10):15–21

    Google Scholar 

  7. Mörner N-A (2015a) Costal erosion and costal stability. In: Barens D (ed) Coastal and beach erosion. Processes, adaptation strategies and environmental impacts. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, pp 69–82

    Google Scholar 

  8. Mörner N-A (2015b) The flooding of Ur in Mesopotamia in new perspectives. Archaeol Discov 3:26–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Mörner NA (2016a) Coastal morphology and sea-level changes in Goa, India during the last 500 years. J Coast Res 33(2):421–434

    Google Scholar 

  10. Mörner N-A (2016b) Sea level changes as observed in nature. In: Easterbrook D (ed) Evidenced-based climate science, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 219–231

    Google Scholar 

  11. NOAA (2017a) Center for operational oceanographic. http://productsandservicestidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/. Visited 13 Sep 2017

  12. NOAA (2017b) Mean Sea Level Trends 485-001 Aden, Yemen. http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/sltrends/sltrends_global_station.htm?stnid=485-001. Image downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  13. Parker A (2016) Analysis of sea level in Karachi. N Concepts Global Tecton 4(1):120–126

    Google Scholar 

  14. Parker A, Ollier CD (2015) Sea level rise for India since the start of tide gauge records. Arab J Geosci 8(9):6483–6495

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Pirazzoli PA (1986) Secular Trends of Relative Sea-Level (RSL) changes indicated by tide-gauge records. J Coast Res 1(1):1–26

    Google Scholar 

  16. PSMSL (2016) Extended tide gauge data. Hogarth 2014, Supplementary note 4: Indian Ocean (January 2016). http://www.psmsl.org/products/author_archive/Indian_Ocean_Tidal_Data_and_References_3d.pdf. Document downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  17. PSMSL (2017) Permanent service for mean sea level. http://www.psmsl.org. Visited 13 Sep 2017

  18. PSMSL (2017) ADEN. http://www.psmsl.org/data/obtaining/stations/44.php. Visited 13 Sep 2017

  19. PSMSL (2017) ADEN—Metric data. http://www.psmsl.org/data/obtaining/met.monthly.data/44.metdata. Data downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  20. PSMSL (2017) ADEN—RLR data. http://www.psmsl.org/data/obtaining/met.monthly.data/44.metdata. Data downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  21. PSMSL (2017) MUMBAI. http://www.psmsl.org/data/obtaining/stations/43.php. Visited 13 Sep 2017

  22. PSMSL (2017) MUMBAI—Metric data. http://www.psmsl.org/data/obtaining/met.monthly.data/43.metdata. Data downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  23. PSMSL (2017) MUMBAI—RLR data. http://www.psmsl.org/data/obtaining/met.monthly.data/43.metdata. Data downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  24. PSMSL (2017) Karachi. http://www.psmsl.org/data/obtaining/stations/204.php. Visited 13 Sep 2017

  25. PSMSL (2017) Karachi—Metric data. http://www.psmsl.org/data/obtaining/met.monthly.data/204.metdata. Data downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  26. PSMSL (2017) Karachi—RLR data. http://www.psmsl.org/data/obtaining/met.monthly.data/204.metdata. Data downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  27. Sealevel.info (2017) Sealevel.info. http://www.sealevel.info. Visited 13 Sep 2017

  28. Sealevel.info (2017) Mean sea level at Aden, Yemen (NOAA 485-001, PSMSL 44). http://www.sealevel.info/MSL_graph.php?id=Aden. Image downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  29. Sealevel.info (2017) Mean sea level at Mumbai/Bombay, India (NOAA 500-041, PSMSL 43). http://www.sealevel.info/MSL_graph1.php?id=500-041. Image downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  30. Sealevel.info (2017) Mean sea level at Karachi, Pakistan (NOAA 490-021, PSMSL 204). http://www.sealevel.info/MSL_graph1.php?id=490-021. Image downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  31. Unnikrishnan AS (2007) Long term variability in the tide gauge records along the coasts of the north Indian Ocean. http://www.psmsl.org/products/commentaries/northern_indian_ocean.pdf. Downloaded 13 Sep 2017

  32. Unnikrishnan AS, Shankar D (2007) Are sea-level-rise trends along the coasts of the north Indian Ocean consistent with global estimates? Global Planet Change 57(3):301–307

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Albert Parker.

Electronic supplementary material

Appendix—different versions of the Aden, Mumbai, and Karachi 471 composite records

Appendix—different versions of the Aden, Mumbai, and Karachi 471 composite records

See Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 8.

Fig. 5
figure5

Prior description of the sea-level patterns in Aden, Karachi and Mumbai. Image from Unnikrishnan (2007). The picture presents the tide gauge records (red) of Aden and Karachi, plus Kandla and Kochi compared with the Mumbai record (blue). These are annual and not monthly mean sea levels. The data were version n-2 of a single-tide gauge record from PSMSL

Fig. 6
figure6

Sea-level trend in Aden, Yemen per: a NOAA with data version n–1 of a single-tide gauge record from PSMSL (image from NOAA (2017b) downloaded on September 13, 2017). b Sealevel.info with data the latest version of a single-tide gauge record from PSMSL (image from Sealevel.info (2017b) downloaded on September 13, 2017)

Fig. 7
figure7

Motivation of latest PSMSL description of the sea-level pattern in Aden and Mumbai. Image from PSMSL (2016). This is the extended annual data from Aden, overlaid on the corrected Mumbai data from this study, showing higher correlation than prior to the latest corrections. A relative vertical land motion difference of − 0.3 mm/year has been added to the Aden record

Fig. 8
figure8

a Sea-level trend in Mumbai, India per Sealevel.info based on version n by PSMSL (image from Sealevel.info (2017c), downloaded on September 13, 2017). b Sea-level trend in Karachi, Pakistan per Sealevel.info based on version n by PSMSL (image from Sealevel.info (2017d) downloaded on September 13, 2017)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Parker, A., Ollier, C.D. Is the Sea Level Stable at Aden, Yemen?. Earth Syst Environ 1, 18 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41748-017-0020-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Tide gauge records
  • Discontinued measurements
  • Alignment of data
  • Sea-level rise
  • Sea-level acceleration