Skip to main content

Determination of Toxic Metals in Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Contaminated Soils with Different Irrigation Sources by Spectroscopic Method

Abstract

Heavy metal contamination of food crops irrigated with municipal wastewater is a growing problem worldwide. In this direction, heavy metal accumulations in Abelmoschus esculentus crops were irrigated with three different water regimes (municipal wastewater, groundwater, and canal water) as well as in soil and the water sources were determined. Also, transfer factors, enrichment coefficients, pollution load indices, and health risk indices were assessed to understand the metal transportation and accumulation through the food chain. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil, water and plant samples were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite furnace and D2 corrector (Perkin–Elmer Model 503). Heavy metal concentrations in the irrigation water samples ranged between 0.513–0.951 for Mo, 0.256–0.615 for As, 0.266–0.606 for Se, 41.604–54.642 for Fe, 0.285–0.753 for Cu, 0.255–0.619 for Zn, 4.684–5.212 for Ni, 3.792–5.526 for Pb, 0.035–0.065 for Cd and 2.635–4.608 for Co mg/L. The contents of Mo, As, Se, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Co in soil samples ranged from 5.03 to 7.80, 34.27 to 38.96, 2.41 to 2.54, 4.77 to 5.94, 2.89 to 3.36, 1.76 to 3.63, 35.02 to 37.32, 25.10 to 28.12, 2.42 to 3.20, and 5.76 to 5.99 mg/kg, respectively, and the contents of Mo, As, Se, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Co in A. esculentus samples ranged from 7.003 to 9.291, 2.800 to 3.585, 0.378 to 0.485, 39.718 to 44.048, 11.791 to 19.840, 28.203 to 37.051, 6.085 to 9.330, 4.885 to 7.061, 3.375 to 4.198, and 0.128 to 0.328 mg/kg, respectively. The range values of metal accumulation in A. esculentus samples were lower than the maximum permissible limits in plant samples except for Mo and Cd. Statistically, Se, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd and Co concentrations did not vary significantly at all sites, while As, Mo, Cu, and Pb concentrations varied significantly in the vegetable samples.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Ahmad K, Ashfaq A, Khan ZI et al (2016a) Health risk assessment of heavy metals and metalloids via dietary intake of a potential vegetable grown in contaminated water irrigated agricultural sites of Sargodha, Pakistan. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 22(3):597–610

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Ahmad K, Khan ZI, Yasmin S et al (2016b) Contamination of soil and carrots irrigated with different sources of water in Punjab, Pakistan. Environ Earth Sci 75:426

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Ahmad K, Khan ZI, Ashfaq A et al (2016c) Contamination and accumulation of heavy metals in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) grown in a long-term wastewater-irrigated agricultural land of Sargodha, Pakistan. Fresen Environ Bull 25(7):2404–2410

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Ahmad K, Nawaz K, Khan ZI et al (2018) Effect of diverse regimes of irrigation on metals accumulation in wheat crop: an assessment-dire need of the day. Fresen Environ Bull 27(2):846–855

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Allen SE, Grimshaw HM, Rowland AP (1986) Chemical analysis. In: Moore PD, Chapman SB (eds) Methods in plant ecology. Blackwell, Scientific Publication, Oxford and London, pp 285–344

    Google Scholar 

  6. Alloway BJ, Ayres DC (1997) Chemical principles of environmental pollution, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, Glasgow

    Google Scholar 

  7. An YJ, Kim YM, Jeong SW (2004) Combined effects of copper, cadmium and lead upon Cucumis sativus growth and bioaccumulation. Sci Total Environ 326:85–93

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Angulo E (1996) The Tomlinson pollution load index applied to heavy metal “mussel-watch” data: a useful index to assess coastal pollution. Sci Total Environ 187:19–56

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Antoniadis V, Alloway BJ (2001) Availability of Cd, Ni and Zn to ryegrass in sewage sludge-treated soils at different temperatures. Water Air Soil Pollut 132:201–214

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Benchasri S (2012) Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) as a valuable vegetable of the world. Ratar Povrt 49:105–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Chao W, Xiao-Chen L, Li–Min Z, Pei-Fang W, Zhi-Yong G (2007) Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni concentrations in vegetables in relation to their extractable fractions in soils in suburban areas of Nanjing, China. Pol J Environ Stud 16(2):199–207

    Google Scholar 

  12. Chiroma TM, Ebewele RO, Hymore FK (2014) Comparative assessment of heavy metal levels in soil, vegetables and urban grey wastewater used for irrigation in Yola and Kano. Int Refereed J Eng Sci 3:1–9

    Google Scholar 

  13. Cui YG, Zhu YG, Zhai RH, Chen DY, Huang YZ, Qui Y, Liang JZ (2004) Transfer of metals from soil to vegetables in an area near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environ Int 30(6):785–791

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Damek-Poprawa M, Sawicka-Kapusta K (2003) Damage to liver, kidney and teats with reference to burden of heavy metals in yellow–necked mice from areas around steelworks and zinc smelters in Poland. Toxicology 186(1–2):1–10

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Dávila OG, Gόmez-Bernal JM, Ruiz-Huerta EA (2012) Plants and soil contamination with heavy metals in agricultural areas of Guadalupe, Zacatecas, Mexico. In: Srivastava JK (ed) Environmental contamination. InTech, Rijeka, pp 37–50

    Google Scholar 

  16. Dogan Y, Ugulu I, Baslar S (2010) Turkish red pine as a biomonitor: a comparative study of the accumulation of trace elements in needles and barks. Ekoloji 19(75):88–96

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Dogan Y, Baslar S, Ugulu I (2014a) A study on detecting heavy metal accumulation through biomonitoring: content of trace elements in plants at Mount Kazdagi in Turkey. Appl Ecol Environ Res 12(3):627–636

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Dogan Y, Unver MC, Ugulu I, Calis M, Durkan N (2014b) Heavy metal accumulation in the bark and leaves of Juglans regia planted in Artvin City, Turkey. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 28(4):643–649. https://doi.org/10.1080/13102818.2014.947076

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Dosumu OO, Abdus-Salam N, Oguntoye S, Afdekale FA (2005) Trace metals bioaccumulation by some Nigerian vegetables. Centrepoint 13:23–32

    Google Scholar 

  20. Durkan N, Ugulu I, Unver MC, Dogan Y, Baslar S (2011) Concentrations of trace elements aluminum, boron, cobalt and tin in various wild edible mushroom species from Buyuk Menderes River Basin of Turkey by ICP-OES. Trace Elem Electroly 28(4):242–248

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Duruibe JO, Ogwuegbu MOC, Egwurugwu JN (2007) Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. Int J Phys Sci 2(5):112–118

    Google Scholar 

  22. Elekes CC, Dumitriu I, Busuioc G, Iliescu NS (2010) The appreciation of mineral element accumulation level in some herbaceous plants species by ICP-AES method. Environ Sci Pollut Res 17:1230–1236

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. FAO/WHO (2001) Maximum levels for lead. Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme, Codex Alimentarius Commission, 24th session, Geneva, 2–7 July 2001, Codex Alimentarius Commission. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome

  24. Figueroa F, Castro-Larragoitia J, Aragón A, García-Meza J (2010) Grass cover density and metal speciation in profiles of a tailings–pile from a mining zones in Zacatecas, North-Central Mexico. Environ Earth Sci 60(2):395–407

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Ho HH, Swennen R, Van Damme A (2010) Distribution and contamination status of heavy metals in estuarine sediments near Cau Ong harbor, Ha Long Bay, Vietnam. Geol Belg 13(1–2):37–47

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Khan ZI, Ahmad K, Ashraf M et al (2016a) Risk assessment of heavy metal toxicity through contaminated vegetable from sewage water: implications for populace health. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 22(2):302–311

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Khan ZI, Ahmad K, Ashraf M et al (2016b) Risk assessment of heavy metal and metalloid toxicity through a contaminated vegetable from wastewater irrigated area: a case study for a site-specific risk assessment in Jhang, Pakistan. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 22(1):86–98

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Khan ZI, Ugulu I, Umar S, Ahmad K, Mehmood N, Ashfaq A, Bashir H, Sohail M (2018) Potential toxic metal accumulation in soil, forage and blood plasma of buffaloes sampled from Jhang, Pakistan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol (online first). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2353-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Liu W, Zhao JZ, Ouyang ZY, Soderlund L, Liu GH (2005) Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environ Pollut 31:805–812

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Mates D, Bardac D, Constantinescu V, Ion RM, Dumitriu I, Fierascu RC, Rugina F (2007) The medical microelementology—applications in professional malignancies diagnosis. Infomedica 142(4):30–34

    Google Scholar 

  31. Murtaza G, Ghafoor A, Qadir M, Rashid MK (2003) Accumulation and bioavailability of Cd, Co and Mn in soils and vegetables irrigated with city effluent. Pak J Agric Sci 40(1–2):18–24

    Google Scholar 

  32. Rattan RK, Datta SP, Chhonkar PK, Suribabuamd K, Singh AK (2005) Long term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metals content in soils, crops and groundwater—a case study. Agric Ecosyst Environ 109:310–322

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Saglam C (2013) Heavy metal accumulation in the edible parts of some cultivated plants and media samples from a volcanic region in southern Turkey. Ekoloji 22(86):1–8

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Santos-Santos E, Yarto-Ramírez M, Gavilán-García I, Castro-Díaz J, Gavilán-García A, Rosiles R, Suárez S, López-Villegas T (2006) Analysis of arsenic, lead and mercury in farming areas with mining contaminated soils at Zacatecas, Mexico. J Mex Chem Soc 50(2):57–63

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Singh KP, Mohon D, Sinha S, Dalwani R (2004) Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharge by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in wastewater disposal area. Chemosphere 55:227–255

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Singh A, Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM (2010) Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food Chem Toxicol 48(2):611–619

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Sinha S, Gupta AK, Bhatt K, Pandey K, Rai UN, Singh KP (2006) Distribution of metals in the edible plants grown at Jajmau, Kanpur (India) receiving treated tannery wastewater: relation with physico-chemical properties of the soil. Environ Monit Assess 115:1–22

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Srikanth R, Reddy SRP (1991) Lead, cadmium and chromium levels in vegetables grown in urban sewage sludge—Hyderabad, India. Food Chem 40(2):229–234

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Standards Dutch (2000) Circular on target values and intervention values for soil remediation. Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, Bilthoven

    Google Scholar 

  40. Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1980) Principles and procedures of statistics. In: A biometrical approach, second edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 633

  41. Stephens SR, Alloway BJ, Carter JE et al (2001) Towards the characterization of heavy metals in dredged canal sediments and an appreciation of availability: two examples from the UK. Environ Pollut 113(3):395–401

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Uboh FE, Akpanabiatu MI, Edet EE, Okon IE (2011) Distribution of heavy metals in fluted pumpkin (Telfeiria occidentalis) leaves planted at different distances away from the traffic congested highways. Int J Adv Biotechnol Res 2(2):250–256

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Ugulu I (2015) Determination of heavy metal accumulation in plant samples by spectrometric techniques in Turkey. Appl Spectros Rev 50(2):113–151

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Ugulu I, Dogan Y, Baslar S, Varol O (2012) Biomonitoring of trace element accumulation in plants growing at Murat Mountain. Int J Environ Sci Technol 9:527–534

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Ugulu I, Unver MC, Dogan Y (2016) Determination and comparison of heavy metal accumulatıon level of Ficus carica bark and leaf samples in Artvin, Turkey. Oxid Commun 39(1):765–775

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Unver MC, Ugulu I, Durkan N, Baslar S, Dogan Y (2015) Heavy metal contents of Malva sylvestris sold as edible greens in the local markets of Izmir. Ekoloji 24(96):13–25

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. USEPA (1997) Exposure factors handbook. Vol. II, Food ingestion factors. EPA/600//P-95/002Fa. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

  48. USEPA (2002) Preliminary remediation goals, Region 9. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  49. Welsch FP, Crock JG, Sanzolone R (1990) Trace elements determination of arsenic and selenium using continuous flow hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS). In: Arbogast BF (ed) Quality assurance manual for the branch of geochemistry. United States Department of the Interior, Washington, pp 38–45

    Google Scholar 

  50. WHO (1996) Trace elements in human nutrition and health. Prepared in collaboration with the FAO of the UN and the IAEA. World Health Organization, Geneva

  51. WWF (2007) Report on national surface water classification criteria, irrigation water quality guidelines for Pakistan. February 2007, Waste Water Forum, Islamabad

  52. Yoon J, Cao X, Zhou Q, Ma LQ (2006) Accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site. Sci Total Environ 368:456–464

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Zahra N (2013) Studies of various adsorbents for the removal of Cu (II) from drinking water. J Eng Sci Technol Rev 6(5):72–75

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The Higher Education Commission, Pakistan is acknowledged for providing the financial support through a research project #2484/13 to the first and fourth authors. The authors thank all the supporters of this project and the referees for their constructive comments.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ilker Ugulu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Khan, Z.I., Ugulu, I., Sahira, S. et al. Determination of Toxic Metals in Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Contaminated Soils with Different Irrigation Sources by Spectroscopic Method. Int J Environ Res 12, 503–511 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41742-018-0110-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Trace metals
  • Vegetable
  • Wastewater
  • Health risk
  • Biomonitoring