Ultrafast and Highly Efficient Removal of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution by Latvia-Originated Sphagnum Peat Moss Sorbent Applying Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction

  • Said Hassan Lubbad
  • Karam Khalil Abu-Saqer
  • Fawzi Suliman Kodeh
Research paper


The removal of malachite green from aqueous solution by Latvia-originated sphagnum peat moss was investigated applying dispersive solid-phase extraction. A sorbent powder, of particle size < 250 μm, was pretreated by successive refluxing of sphagnum in water, alcohol, and acetone. Foremost, the absorbance of the sphagnum matrix was assessed at the dye absorbance maxima of 254, 550, and 616 nm, applying different solution pH values. Furthermore, the optimum conditions of malachite green adsorption, such as equilibrium time, pH, adsorbent mass, and adsorbate initial concentration were investigated. In addition, the equilibrium isotherms and adsorption kinetics were studied. Fortunately, the absorbance ratio of malachite green to that of sphagnum matrix was the highest at pH 7.0 and 616 nm. Regarding dye extraction, a breakthrough in the adsorption speed was concluded, where a 2-min adsorption equilibrium contact time of 98.1% dye removal and a remarkable 30-s dye uptake of 97.3% were accomplished. Additionally, the equilibrium isotherm plot correlated well with Freundlich’s model (R2 = 0.9223). Also, the adsorption kinetic study demonstrated good correlation to the pseudo-second-order plot (R2 = 0.9999). Finally, excellent reproducibility of eight extraction replicates was demonstrated furnishing an average equilibrium dye removal of 97.8% and RSD of 1.06%.

Graphical abstract


Ultrafast removal Malachite green dye Latvia-originated sphagnum peat moss Adsorption kinetics and isotherms 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Khalid Obeid, Geology Department at Al-Azhar University-Gaza, for his assistance in sieving the sphagnum peat moss. Moreover, the authors are grateful to the staff of the wastewater treatment plant at the Northern Gaza Governorate for their collaboration and supply of the wastewater samples.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript being submitted. They warrant that the article is the authors’ original work, has not received prior publication and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Moreover, the authors confirm the validity of research and there is no financial or personal interest or belief that could affect their objectivity. The authors state explicitly that no potential conflicts exist.


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Copyright information

© University of Tehran 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Said Hassan Lubbad
    • 1
  • Karam Khalil Abu-Saqer
    • 1
  • Fawzi Suliman Kodeh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryAl-Azhar University-GazaGazaPalestine

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