Additive robotic construction of building-scale discrete bar structures, such as trusses and space frames, is increasingly attractive due to the potential improvements in efficiency, safety, and design possibilities. However, programming complex robots, such as manipulators with seven degrees of freedom, to successfully complete construction tasks can be tedious, challenging, or impossible for a human to do manually. Namely, the structure must be constructed in a sequence that preserves structural properties, such as stiffness, at each step. At the same time, this sequence must allow for the robot to precisely manipulate elements within the in-progress structure while respecting geometric constraints that, for example, ensure the robot does not collide with what it has built. In this work, we present an automated and newly generalized planning approach for jointly finding a construction sequence and robot motion plan for additive construction that satisfies these requirements. Our approach can be applied in a variety of additive construction processes, and we demonstrate it specifically on spatial extrusion and discrete bar assembly in this paper. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on several simulated and real-world extrusion and assembly tasks, including a human-scale physical prototype, for which our algorithm is deployed for the first time to plan the assembly of a complicated double tangent bar system design.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
The code and data used for the computational experiments are available at https://github.com/yijiangh/coop_assembly.
Apolinarska AA, Knauss M, Gramazio F, Kohler M (2016) The sequential roof. In: Menges A, Krieg OD, Schwinn T (eds) Advancing wood architecture: a computational approach. Routledge, pp 45–57
Berenson D, Srinivasa S, Kuffner J (2011) Task space regions: a framework for pose-constrained manipulation planning. Int J Robot Res 30(12):1435–1460
Beyeler L, Bazin JC, Whiting E (2015) A graph-based approach for discovery of stable deconstruction sequences. In: Block P, Knippers J, Mitra N, Wang W (eds) Advances in architectural geometry 2014. Springer, pp 145–157
Braumann J, Brell-Cokcan S (2011) Parametric robot control: integrated CAD/CAM for architectural design. In: Proceedings of the 31st annual conference of the association for computer aided design in architecture (ACADIA), Banff, Alberta, pp 242–251
Coumans E (2015) Bullet physics simulation. In: ACM SIGGRAPH 2015 Courses. ACM, pp 7
Deuss M, Panozzo D, Whiting E, Liu Y, Block P, Sorkine-Hornung O, Pauly M (2014) Assembling self-supporting structures. ACM Trans Graph (TOG) 33(6):214
Diankov R (2010) Automated construction of robotic manipulation programs. Ph.D. thesis, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University
Eversmann P, Gramazio F, Kohler M (2017) Robotic prefabrication of timber structures: towards automated large-scale spatial assembly. Constr Robot 1(1–4):49–60
Gandia A, Parascho S, Rust R, Casas G, Gramazio F, Kohler M (2018) Towards automatic path planning for robotically assembled spatial structures. In: Willmann J, Block P, Hutter M, Byrne K, Schork T (eds) Robotic fabrication in architecture, art and design. Springer, pp 59–73
Garrett CRC, Lozano-Pérez T, Kaelbling LLP (2018) Sampling-based methods for factored task and motion planning. Int J Robot Res. https://doi.org/10.1177/0278364918802962
Garrett C, Huang Y, Lozano-Pérez T, Mueller C (2020) Scalable and probabilistically complete planning for robotic spatial extrusion. In: Toussaint M, Bicchi A, Hermans T (eds) Robotics: science and systems XVI. Robotics: Science and Systems Foundation. https://doi.org/10.15607/RSS.2020.XVI.092
Garrett CR, Chitnis R, Holladay R, Kim B, Silver T, Kaelbling LP, Lozano-Pérez T (2021) Integrated task and motion planning. Ann Rev Control Robot Auton Syst 4(1):265–293
Gelber MK, Hurst G, Bhargava R (2018) Freeform assembly planning. IEEE Trans Autom Sci Eng 16(3):1315–1329
Gramazio F, Matthias K, Willmann J (2014) The robotic touch. Park Books, Zurich
Hack N, Lauer WV (2014) Mesh-mould: robotically fabricated spatial meshes as reinforced concrete formwork. Archit Des 84(3):44–53
Helm V, Willmann J, Thoma A, Piškorec L, Hack N, Gramazio F, Kohler M (2015) Iridescence print: robotically printed lightweight mesh structures. 3D Print Addit Manuf 2(3):117–122
Helm V, Knauss M, Kohlhammer T, Gramazio F, Kohler M (2017) Additive robotic fabrication of complex timber structures. In: Menges A, Krieg OD, Schwinn T (eds) Advancing wood architecture: a computational approach. Routledge, pp 29–43
Huang Y, Zhang J, Hu X, Song G, Liu Z, Yu L, Liu L (2016) Framefab: robotic fabrication of frame shapes. ACM Trans Graph (TOG) 35(6):224
Huang Y, Garrett CR, Mueller CT (2018) Automated sequence and motion planning for robotic spatial extrusion of 3D trusses. Constr Robot 2(1):15–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41693-018-0012-z
Kingston Z, Moll M, Kavraki LE (2019) Exploring implicit spaces for constrained sampling-based planning. Int J Robot Res 38(10–11):1151–1178. https://doi.org/10.1177/0278364919868530
Kuffner Jr JJ, LaValle SM (2000) RRT-Connect: an efficient approach to single-query path planning. In: IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (ICRA), vol 2. San Francisco, California, US, pp 995–1001. https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2000.844730
Lagriffoul F (2016) On Benchmarks for combined task and motion planning. In: Robotics: science and systems (RSS) 2016 workshop on Task and motion planning
LaValle SM (1998) Rapidly-exploring random trees: a new tool for path planning. Technical Report No. 98-11 (Iowa State Univ., 1998)
McGuire W, Gallagher RH, Ziemian RD (1999) Matrix structural analysis. Wiley, New York
Parascho S (2019) Cooperative robotic assembly: computational design and robotic fabrication of spatial metal structures. Doctoral Thesis, ETH Zurich. https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-b-000364322. Accepted: 2019-09-17T07:16:57Z
Parascho S, Kohlhammer T, Coros S, Gramazio F, Kohler M (2018) Computational design of robotically assembled spatial structures: a sequence based method for the generation and evaluation of structures fabricated with cooperating robots. In: Hesselgren L, Kilian A, Malek S, Olsson K-G, Sorkine-Hornung O, Williams C (eds) AAG 2018: Advances in Architectural Geometry 2018. Klein Publishing, pp 112–139
Schwartz T (2012) HAL: extension of a visual programming language to support teaching and research on robotics applied to construction. In: Brell-Çokcan S, Braumann J (eds) Robotic fabrication in architecture, art and design 2012. Springer, pp 92–101
Soler V, Retsin G, Jimenez GM (2017) A generalized approach to non-layered fused filament fabrication. In: Proceedings of the 36st Annual conference of the association for computer aided design in architecture (ACADIA). Cambridge, MA, US, pp 562–571
Søndergaard A, Amir O, Eversmann P, Piškorec L, Stan F, Gramazio F, Kohler M (2016) Topology optimization and robotic fabrication of advanced timber space-frame structures. In: Reinhardt D, Saunders R, Burry J (eds) Robotic fabrication in architecture, art and design 2016. Springer, pp 190–203
Srivastava S, Fang E, Riano L, Chitnis R, Russell S, Abbeel P (2014) Combined task and motion planning through an extensible planner-independent interface layer. In: IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (ICRA), Hong Kong, China
Stilman M (2010) Global manipulation planning in robot joint space with task constraints. IEEE Trans Robot 26(3):576–584
Sucan IA, Chitta S (2018) Moveit! http://moveit.ros.org. Accessed 12 July 2021
Tam KM, Marshall DJM, Gu M, Kim J, Huang Y, Lavallee JA, Mueller CT (2018) Fabrication-aware structural optimisation of lattice additive-manufactured with robot-arm. Int J Rapid Manuf 7(2–3):120–168
Thoma A, Adel A, Helmreich M, Wehrle T, Gramazio F, Kohler M (2018) Robotic fabrication of bespoke timber frame modules. In: Willmann J, Block P, Hutter M, Byrne K, Schork T (eds) Robotic fabrication in architecture, art and design. Springer, pp 447–458
Toussaint M (2015) Logic-geometric programming: an optimization-based approach to combined task and motion planning. In: IJCAI international joint conference on artificial intelligence. AAAI Press, pp 1930–1936
Willmann J, Knauss M, Bonwetsch T, Apolinarska AA, Gramazio F, Kohler M (2016) Robotic timber construction-expanding additive fabrication to new dimensions. Autom Constr 61:16–23
Wu R, Peng H, Guimbretière F, Marschner S (2016) Printing arbitrary meshes with a 5DOF wireframe printer. ACM Trans Graph (TOG) 35(4):101
Yao Z, Gupta K (2007) Path planning with general end-effector constraints. Robot Auton Syst 55(4):316–327
Yu L, Huang Y, Liu Z, Xiao S, Liu L, Song G, Wang Y (2016) Highly informed robotic 3D printed polygon mesh: a novel strategy of 3D spatial printing. In: Proceedings of the 36st annual conference of the association for computer aided design in architecture (ACADIA), Ann Arbor, MI, US, pp 298–307
Yuan PF, Meng H, Yu L, Zhang L (2016) Robotic multi-dimensional printing based on structural performance. In: Reinhardt D, Saunders R, Burry J (eds) Robotic fabrication in architecture, art and design. Springer, pp 92–105
Caelan Garrett acknowledges the support from NSF Grants 1420316, 1523767 and 1723381, from AFOSR FA9550-17-1-0165, from ONR Grant N00014-14-1-0486, and an NSF GRFP fellow-ship with primary award number 1122374. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Huang, Y., Garrett, C.R., Ting, I. et al. Robotic additive construction of bar structures: unified sequence and motion planning. Constr Robot 5, 115–130 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41693-021-00062-z
- Sequence and motion planning
- Robotic spatial assembly
- Robotic spatial extrusion