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Sustainability of global communities and regional risk governance


As global markets grow and come to be connected firmly, the risk that some local difficulties might grow and transform into global crises is rising. This paper presents an analytical exploration, using social surplus, of effects on local and global communities. Globalized economies tend to lower the relative revenue of governments by presenting comparison to the growing scale of private economies. Sustainability and stability in global communities depend on an efficient scheme of public–private partnerships extending beyond national borders. This paper presents development of a theoretical analysis of regional risk governance for global communities. Specifically, this paper presents propositions stated as follows. Regional competition diversifies regional risk governance to facilitate the reconstruction of infrastructure in shrinking cities for a new industrial revolution. The initiatives can advance industrial and urban structures in prosperous and limited regions. Regional diversity in economic activities arises from regional competition and causes regional problems. Private funds are sensitive to risk avoidance. Enhanced risk in some regions disturbs the distribution of funds necessary to achieve social needs. Mechanisms necessary to achieve sustainability of global communities are investigated completely.

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Fig. 1

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Fig. 3

Source: Tanaka (2011c, p. 39)


  1. Rifkin (2014) anticipates that a new type of industrial revolution reform industrial and social systems largely and Tanaka (2010, 2011a) provides the cost and benefit method to evaluate policies to prompt innovation. McLaren and Agyeman (2015) explore sustainability in the sharing cities to be connected with innovation of technologies.

  2. Richardson and Nam (2014) extensively survey case studies related to shrinking cities.

  3. Taylor (2001) explains the importance of cooperative and competitive relations in global cities. White (1998) argues not only for economic factors such as capital and money but also social structure in the empirical studies of Tokyo and Paris.

  4. Tallon (2013) describes the regeneration of urban structures.

  5. UNEP FI and UN Global Compact (2006).

  6. Tanaka (2014) presents the results of surveys examining the features of cooperative structures in the Tokyo area.

  7. Tanaka (2004) describes the theoretical framework in Japanese. Tanaka (2009) argues in English that this framework is applicable for some issues of the globalized economies and societies. The two papers present the framework completely.

  8. The functions presented in this paper are assumed to be continuously differentiable and concave according to ordinary usage in mathematical economics.

  9. Analysis of the sustainable community stakeholder focuses the stakeholder. Numbers n in (1), (2) and (3) stand for the group number of stakeholders for each corporation.

  10. Tanaka (2016b) explores the structure changes as the regional issues by comparing the sustainable initiatives in the global communities.

  11. Tanaka (2011b) constructs a framework to analyze features of network effects of global cities.

  12. Leigh and Blakely (2013) argue the urban issues caused by the rapid structural change of cities.

  13. Tanaka (2016a).

  14. A report by the GSIA (2017) presents a survey of the development of sustainable investment 2014–2016 in a global society.


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Correspondence to Hiroshige Tanaka.

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Tanaka, H. Sustainability of global communities and regional risk governance. Asia-Pac J Reg Sci 1, 639–653 (2017).

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  • Competitive and cooperative mechanisms
  • Global cities
  • Global public goods
  • PRI
  • Regional governance
  • Shrinking cities