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Photonic crystal based heterostructures in the control of emission and diffraction features

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Photonic crystals have very interesting features in their angle-resolved spectral response, originating from the periodic arrangement of dielectric constant and the consequent stopband effects. The response can be further enhanced and more functionalities can be built into the structures by growing heterostructures and superlattices. The role of multiple periodicities enabled by such architectural variations will predominantly influence the way the different wavelengths, either incident from outside or generated in the structure, will be controlled by the structure. To demonstrate this influence, two specific characteristics will be studied in this work. In the case of fluorescent emitters present in the structure, the correct choice of wavelength incident on the structure leads to absorption and subsequent emission at a different wavelength. It is possible to either enhance/suppress the emitted intensity or modify the emitted spectral range of wavelengths by confining the field and utilizing the stopband effect and the additional defect states enabled by the heterostructural design. An efficient control on the gain and the optical feedback in the structures can initiate lasing at threshold values lesser than that of the stand-alone photonic crystals. Alternately, in the case of passive structures which lack absorption and emission, it is advantageous to build the functionality of enhanced diffraction and broadband spatial dispersion of wavelengths, by combining two or more periodic structures into the same platform. Three different heterostructures will be used to demonstrate these effects.

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The authors express their gratitude to multiple students and project staff associated with the Photonics lab at IIT Bombay during 2008–2011 and Photonics lab at IIT Kanpur during 2011–2021 who have assisted with the technical aspects of the broad theme of this work at different stages, and to several characterization facilities at IIT Bombay and IIT Kanpur which were used in these studies. This work was supported by the sponsored funding from IMPRINT project of MHRD and DRDO (Project Number: 4194), from DST, India (Project Number DST/TDT/DDP-05/2017) and from SERB, India (Project Numbers: EMR/2015/001450 and CRG/2020/002353).

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Correspondence to R. Vijaya.

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Kumar, G., Haldar, A. & Vijaya, R. Photonic crystal based heterostructures in the control of emission and diffraction features. ISSS J Micro Smart Syst 11, 81–112 (2022).

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