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Aspen Plus Simulation of Biomass Gasification: a Comprehensive Model Incorporating Reaction Kinetics, Hydrodynamics and Tar Production

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Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Energy generation from biomass through gasification has been a keen area of research for a long time. However, gasification still needs to overcome a significant number of challenges for its wider acceptability. Even though experimental works on lab-scale biomass gasifiers are available, computational modelling and simulations are crucial in predicting the system performance. Process simulation and analysis of fluidized bed gasification using Aspen Plus software are considered in this study. Among the three Aspen Plus models developed in the present study, model 1 and model 2 are developed based on equilibrium and kinetic approach, respectively. In addition to this, reaction kinetics, gasifier geometry and bed hydrodynamics are considered in model 3. The model-predicted values are then validated against experimental data. Minimum values of mean error, root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error, are observed for model 3. As model 3 realistically represents the gasification process, the impact of gasification temperature and equivalence ratio on the product gas composition, lower heating value, cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion efficiency are systematically studied using this model. The model is simulated at temperatures ranging from 680 to 800 °C and equivalence ratio of 0.24–0.32. The simulation results indicated that higher operating temperature and lower equivalence ratio enhanced the gasification process. Benzene is identified as the primary component of tar with a composition of 9.79 g/kgbiom.

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Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.

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\(Ar\) :

Archimedes number

\({\rho }_{g}\) :

Fluid density (kg/m3)

\({\rho }_{p}\) :

Particle density (kg/m3)

\({d}_{p}\) :

Particle diameter (m)

\({\mu }_{g}\) :

Fluid viscosity (kg/ms)

\(g\) :

Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)

\({Re}_{mf}\) :

Reynolds number at onset of fluidization

\({U}_{mf}\) :

Minimum fluidization velocity (m/s)

\({U}_{t}\) :

Particle terminal velocity (m/s)

\({C}_{D}\) :

Drag coefficient

\({y}_{ip}\) :

Predicted composition of ith component

\({y}_{ie}\) :

Experimental composition of ith component


Air supply rate


Biomass feed rate


Carbon conversion efficiency


Cold gas efficiency

(E) :

Experimental value

ER :

Equivalence ratio


Institute of Gas Technology


Lower heating value

(M) :

Model-predicted value


Mean absolute error


Mean absolute percentage error


Mass fraction of nitrogen


Mean residual sum of squares


Producer gas yield


Root mean square error


Residual sum of squares


Transport disengaging height


Volume fraction of nitrogen


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Abdul Azeez K T has contributed to the main conceptual idea, investigation and full article writing. Suraj P has assisted in the investigation and revision of the manuscript. Muraleedharan C and Arun P have guided the study and modified the write-up.

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Correspondence to Abdul Azeez K T.

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K T, A.A., P, S., C, M. et al. Aspen Plus Simulation of Biomass Gasification: a Comprehensive Model Incorporating Reaction Kinetics, Hydrodynamics and Tar Production. Process Integr Optim Sustain 7, 255–268 (2023).

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