Beam control for indoor FSO and dynamic dual-use VLC lighting systems

  • Michael B. RahaimEmail author
  • Jessica Morrison
  • Thomas D. C. Little
Research paper Special Focus on Optical Wireless Communication


Practical VLC (Visible Light Communication) systems are expected to leverage the lighting infrastructure in order to deliver data to devices in a lighting field. These devices can be static or quasistatic (e.g., laptops or IoT devices); however, it is becoming clear that the preponderance of wireless data consumption is dominated by handheld mobile devices which will exhibit varying physical orientations and 3D dynamics. Because free-space optical and visible light communications are primarily line of sight, transmitter radiation patterns and receiver field of view are very important for predicting the data performance. Given dynamic emission characteristics, there is an opportunity to adapt to the receiver. The caveat of dynamic VLC systems is that the quality and distribution of the resulting illumination must be considered as part of the dual goal of providing high quality lighting. In this paper we investigate the impact of device orientation and mobility on static and then dynamic lighting emission under a multicell lighting model. From a source standpoint we consider the performance of beam control through angular control and beam focus for one or more sources in a lighting array. Analysis and simulation demonstrate that dynamic beam and luminaire control can increase the AP coverage range by 12.8X under a 1.67 m ceiling height. Furthermore, the use of multiple sources tracking device orientation and position can mitigate off-angle performance degradation by increasing redundancy in the number of available connections. Our proposed techniques, when applied in concert, successfully mitigate common concerns about the viability of VLC and indoor FSO (Free Space Optical Communication) methods related to signal occlusion and device dynamics.


VLC ultra-dense wireless networks beam steering MEMS dynamic wireless networks 


  1. [1]
    M. Rahaim, T. D. C. Little. SINR analysis and cell zooming with constant illumination for indoor VLC networks [C]//International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW), 2013.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. Morrison, M. Rahaim, Y. Miao, et al. Directional visible light communication signal enhancement using a varifocal micromirror with four degrees of freedom [C]//15th International Conference on Solid State Lighting and LED-based Illumination Systems, 2016: 99540C.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    J. Morrison, M. Imboden, T. D. C. Little, et al. Tip-Tilt-Piston micromirror with integrated large range variable focus for smart lighting systems [C]//TechConnect Briefs 2015, 2015: 300–303.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    J. Morrison, M. Imboden, T. D. C. Little. Electrothermally actuated tip-tilt-piston micromirror with integrated varifocal capability [J]. Opt. express, 2015, 23(7): 9555–9566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    C. Knoernschild, C. Kim, F. P. Lu, et al. Multiplexed broadband beam steering system utilizing high speed MEMS mirrors [J]. Opt. express, 2009, 17(9): 7233–7244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Y. S. Eroglu, I. Guvenc, A. Sahin, et al. Diversity combining and piezoelectric beam steering for multielement VLC networks [C]//3rd Workshop on VLC Systems, New York, 2016: 25–30.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    A. Gomez, K. Shi, C. Quintana, et al. Design and demonstration of a 400 Gb/s indoor optical wireless communications link [J]. J. lightwave technol., 2016, 34(22): 5332–5339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    C. W. Oh, E. Tangdiongga, A. M. J. Koonen. Steerable pencil beams for multi-Gbps indoor optical wireless communication [J]. Opt. lett., 2014, 39(18): 5427–5430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    C. W. Oh, Z. Cao, E. Tangdiongga, et al. Free-space transmission with passive 2D beam steering for multigigabit-per-second per-beam indoor optical wireless networks [J]. Opt. express, 2016, 24(17): 19211–19227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    A. T. Hussein, M. T. Alresheedi, J. M. H. Elmirghani. 20 Gb/s mobile indoor visible light communication system employing beam steering and computer generated holograms [J]. J. lightwave technol., 2015, 33(24): 5242–5260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, et al. Coverage aspects of indoor VLC networks [J]. J. lightwave technol., 2015, 33(23): 4915–4921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Z. Zhan, M. Zhang, D. H. Han, et al. 1.2 Gbps non-imaging MIMO-OFDM scheme based VLC over indoor lighting led arrangments [C]//Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 2015: 1–3.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    H. W. Liang, Y. H. Hwang. Mobile phone use behaviors and postures on public transportation systems [J]. PLoS one, 2016, 11(2): e0148419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    M. D. Soltani, X. Wu, M. Safari, et al. Access point selection in Li-Fi cellular networks with arbitrary receiver orientation [C]//IEEE 27th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2016: 1–6.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    M. D. Soltani, H. Kazemi, M. Safari, et al. Handover modeling for indoor Li-Fi cellular networks: The effects of receiver mobility and rotation [C]//IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2017: 1–6.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    R. Zhang, J. H. Wang, Z. C. Wang, et al. Visible light communications in heterogeneous networks: paving the way for usercentric design [J]. IEEE wireless communications, 2015, 22(2): 8–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    M. Ayyash, H. Elgala, A. Khreishah. Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: concepts, opportunities, and challenges [J]. IEEE communications, 2016, 54(2): 64–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    J. Kahn, J. Barry. Wireless infrared communications [J]. Proc IEEE, 1997, 85(2): 265–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    M. Rahaim, A. Vegni, T. D. C. Little. A hybrid radio frequency and broadcast visible light communication system [C]//IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2011: 792–796.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    T. Borogovac, M. Rahaim, J. Carruthers. Spotlighting for visible light communications and illumination [C]//IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2010: 1077–1081.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    V. Milanovic, A. Kasturi, N. Siu, et al. "MEMSEye" for optical 3D tracking and imaging applications [C]//16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, 2011: 1895–1898.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    V. Milanovic. Linearized gimballess two-axis MEMS mirrors [C]//Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, 2009: 4–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Posts & Telecom Press and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael B. Rahaim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jessica Morrison
    • 1
  • Thomas D. C. Little
    • 1
  1. 1.Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentBoston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations