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Design, construction, and offline calibration of ARPolar prototype for SXFEL facility



The polarization characteristics of photoelectrons are critical for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments. Several FEL facilities have operated an eTOF-alike polarimeter based on the angular distribution of photoelectrons. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the design, construction and offline test of the prototype angular resolved polarimeter (ARPolar-CORE) for the Shanghai Soft X-ray Facility (SXFEL). This paper describes the overall design of this instrument, covering the main chamber, detector assemblies, and electronics.


To validate the performance of the instrument, the detectors and electronics were tested offline and calibrated. Moreover, based on the measured pulse shape obtained from the offline tests, a comprehensive numerical analysis is presented to evaluate the performance of the instrument.

Results and conclusion

The results show that the fluctuation in the electron charges is less than 0.8% under the SXFEL working conditions, corresponding to a linear polarity of 0.988 ± 0.0175 for linearly and horizontally polarized FEL pulses. The analysis also indicates that a 0.16 eV mean square error is fully feasible for 645 eV FEL pulses.

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Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available within the article.


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This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFE0103100), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (12125508, 11935020), Program of Shanghai Academic/Technology Research Leader (21XD14 04100), and Shanghai Pilot Program for Basic Research – Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai Branch (JCYJ-SHFY-2021-010).

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Correspondence to Haixiao Deng.

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Liu, Z., Deng, B., Zhang, Q. et al. Design, construction, and offline calibration of ARPolar prototype for SXFEL facility. Radiat Detect Technol Methods 6, 214–226 (2022).

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  • Free electron laser
  • eTOF-based polarimeter
  • Calibration
  • Electronics