Skip to main content

Research and development of the back-end electronics for the two-dimensional improved resistive plate chambers in CMS upgrade

Abstract

Purpose

To complement and ensure redundancy in the endcap muon system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector and to extend the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) system coverage, improved RPCs (iRPCs) with either orthogonal layer strips with one-end electronics or single layer strips with two-end electronics providing more precise time measurement will be installed in the very forward pseudorapidity region of \(|\eta |<2.4\). The iRPC readout system needs to support two-dimensional (2D) or two-end readout. In addition, it must combine detector data with Timing, Trigger and fast Control (TTC) and Slow Control (SC) into one data stream over a bi-directional optical link with a line rate of 4.8 Gb/s between the Front-End Electronics (FEE) and the Back-End Electronics (BEE). To fulfill these requirements, a prototype BEE for the iRPC 2D chamber has been researched and designed.

Methods

A Micro-Telecommunication and Computing Architecture (\(\mu \)TCA)-based processing card was designed in this study to establish a prototype system together with a \(\mu \)TCA crate. The Giga-Bit Transceiver (GBT) protocol is integrated to provide bi-directional communication between the FEE and BEE. A server is connected with the BEE by a Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) link for SC and a 10-GbE link for Data AcQuisition (DAQ).

Results

The Bit Error Rate (BER) test of the back-end board and a joint test with the iRPC 2D prototype chamber were performed. A BER of less than \(1.331\times {10^{-16}}\) was obtained. The time measurement with a resolution of 3.05 ns was successfully realized, and detector efficiencies of 97.7% for longitudinal strips and 96.0% for orthogonal strips were measured. Test results demonstrate the correctness and reliability of the prototype BEE.

Conclusion

The BEE prototype satisfies the requirements for the iRPC 2D chamber, and it worked stably and reliably during a long-term joint test run.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19

References

  1. 1.

    D. Acosta, A. Ball et al., CMS Technical Design Report for the Level-1 Trigger Upgrade. CERN-LHCC-2013-011, CMS-TDR-12: 1, 2

  2. 2.

    CMS Collaboration, The Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS Muon Detectors Technical Design Report. CERN-LHCC-2017-012, CMS-TDR-016 (2018)

  3. 3.

    Z.-A. Liu, IHEP, Beijing, CAS, on behalf of the RPC group. RPC BackEnd Plan/Proposal. Feb. 12, 2019, RPC LS2 and Upgrade workshop. https://indico.cern.ch/event/793996/contributions/3306332/attachments/1794487/2925202/RPC-Upgrade-BackEnd-Proposal20190212a.pdf

  4. 4.

    Z.-A. Liu, IHEP, Beijing. Common Hardware Development for Trigger Concentrator and RPC BackEnd. CMS Week/Trigger Upgrade Workshop, Feb. 5, 2019, CERN/Geneva https://indico.cern.ch/event/792208/contributions/3303890/attachments/1791104/2918047/CMSWeek-Upgrade-20190205a.pdf

  5. 5.

    Z.-A. Liu, Muon back-end electronics and L1 trigger data concentration. Sep. 24, 2019. https://indico.cern.ch/event/847083/contributions/3560578/attachments/1914133/3163929/CMSWeek201909TrigUpgReport.pdf

  6. 6.

    E. Hazen et al., The AMC13xg: a new generation clock/timing/DAQ module for CMS MicroTCA. JINST 8, C12036 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    VadaTech, MicroTCA MCH Getting Started Guide, Version 1.1 (2010)

  8. 8.

    VadaTech, Microtca overview: A brief introduce to micro telecommunications computing architecture concepts, Technical file Version 1.1 (2014)

  9. 9.

    J. Troska, E. Corrin, T. Rohlev, J. Varela, Y. Kojevnikov, Implementation of the timing, trigger and control system of the CMS experiment, in 14th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference, 2005. June 2005

  10. 10.

    C. Wang, Z.-A. Liu, J. Zhao, Z. Liu, Design of a high throughput electronics module for high energy physics experiments. Chin. Phys. C 40, 66102 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    CERN EP-ESE-BE, GBT-FPGA project, https://espace.cern.ch/GBT-Project/GBT-FPGA

  12. 12.

    Z.-A. Liu, Back-end electronics:status and plan. RPC Workshop, CERN, Jan 30-31 2020. https://indico.cern.ch/event/879398/contributions/3704331/attachments/1978834/3294474/RPCWorkshopUpgradeBEreport2020Jan30.pdf

  13. 13.

    P. Moreira et al., The GBT Project, in The Proceedings of Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics, TWEPP 2009, Paris, France, 21–25 September 2009, pp. 342–346 (CERN-20090-6)

  14. 14.

    P. Moreira et al., GBTX manual Version 0.15 Draf, http://cern.ch/proj-gbt (2016)

  15. 15.

    S. Bonacini et al., GBT-SCA User Manual Version 8.2, CERN PH-ESE-ME (2017)

  16. 16.

    T. Uchida, Hardware-based TCP processor for gigabit ethernet. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 1631 (2008)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    XILINX. Integrated Bit Error Ratio Tester 7 Series GTH Transceivers v3.0, Logicore IP Product Guide. 2016, PG152

  18. 18.

    Z.-A. Liu, on behalf of TriggerLab, IHEP, Beijing. Report on BEE Status and Schedule. Mar. 25, 2020. RPC Weekly Vidyo Meeting. https://indico.cern.ch/event/899790/contributions/3791085/attachments/2009163/3356372/BEEReportWKM20200325.pdf

  19. 19.

    P. Cao, Z.-A. Liu, J. Zhao, H. Kou et al., Report on Joint Test of BEE-iRPC with Detector. Mar. 16, 2020, RPC Upgrade Working Meeting. https://indico.cern.ch/event/898731/contributions/3788416/attachments/2004180/3346761/BEEiRPCJointTestReport20200316.pdf

  20. 20.

    S. Meola et al., on behalf of the CMS Collaboration. Towards a two-dimensional readout of the improved CMS Resistive Plate Chamber with a new front-end electronics. arXiv:2006.00576. https://arxiv.org/abs/2006.00576

Download references

Acknowledgements

The project is jointly supported in part by the National Key Programme for S&T Research and Development (Grant NO.: 2016YFA0400104), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 12035018), and the IHEP Innovation Fund (Y9545150U2). The IHEP authors thank Nikolaos Zaganidis and Helio Nogima for their participation during the joint test and Jan Eysermans for his help in offline data analysis.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Consortia

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Z.-A. Liu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cao, P., Liu, ZA., Zhao, J. et al. Research and development of the back-end electronics for the two-dimensional improved resistive plate chambers in CMS upgrade. Radiat Detect Technol Methods 5, 181–191 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41605-020-00229-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • CMS
  • iRPC
  • TTC
  • SC
  • BEE
  • \(\mu \)TCA
  • GBT
  • DAQ