Skip to main content

Exploring potential of different X-ray imaging methods for early-stage lung cancer detection

Abstract

Purpose

To explore the potential of X-ray imaging for early-stage lung cancer screening and to help finding an optimal lung cancer screening method.

Methods

Experimentally and simulatively comparing performances of different X-ray techniques (absorption-contrast imaging and phase-contrast imaging) for model lung cancer samples.

Results

Absorption imaging shows performance equal to or better than that of low-radiation dose.

Conclusion

Absorption imaging is still the most promising imaging method for early lung cancer detection.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R.L. Siegel, L.A. Torre, A. Jemal, Global cancer statistics 2018: Globocan estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J. Clin. 68(6), 394–424 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. D.E. Wood, G.A. Eapen, D.S. Ettinger, L. Hou, D. Jackman, E. Kazerooni, D. Klippenstein, R.P. Lackner, L. Leard, A.N.C. Leung et al., Lung cancer screening. J. Natl. Compr. Cancer Netw. 10(2), 240–265 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. S.M.P.H. Rebecca, M.P. Siegel, D. Kimberly, M.P.H. Miller, D.V.M. Ahmedin Jemal, Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J. Clin. 67(27), 7–30 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  4. D. Sadighbayan, K. Sadighbayan, A.Y. Khosroushahi, M. Hasanzadeh, Recent advances on the DNA-based electrochemical biosensing of cancer biomarkers: analytical approach. TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2019.07.020

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. D.R. Aberle, A.M. Adams, C.D. Berg, W.C. Black, J.D. Clapp, R.M. Fagerstrom, I.F. Gareen, C. Gatsonis, P.M. Marcus, J.D. Sicks, Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N. Engl. J. Med. 365(5), 395–409 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. U.M.H.A.R.T. Bonse, M. Hart, An X-ray interferometer. Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155–156 (1965)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues. Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. V.N. Ingal, E.A. Beliaevskaya, X-ray plane-wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(11), 2314 (1995)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. T.J. Davis, D. Gao, T.E. Gureyev, A.W. Stevenson, S.W. Wilkins, Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard X-rays. Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R.E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, D. Sayers, Diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging. Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. C. David, B. Nöhammer, H.H. Solak, E. Ziegler, Differential X-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer. Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer. Opt. Express 13(16), 6296–6304 (2005)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, C. David, Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources. Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. A. Olivo, F. Arfelli, G. Cantatore, R. Longo, R.H. Menk, S. Pani, M. Prest, P. Poropat, L. Rigon, G. Tromba et al., An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field. Med. Phys. 28(8), 1610–1619 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. A. Olivo, R. Speller, A coded-aperture technique allowing X-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 074106 (2007)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, I. Schelokov, On the possibilities of X-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486–5492 (1995)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. S.W. Wilkins, T.E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, A.W. Stevenson, Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays. Nature 384(6607), 335 (1996)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. G.K. Aulakh, A. Mann, G. Belev, S. Wiebe, W.M. Kuebler, B. Singh, D. Chapman, Multiple image X-radiography for functional lung imaging. Phys. Med. Biol. 63(1), 015009 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. L. Dong, J. Li, L. Wushuai Jian, M.W. Zhang, H. Shi, S. Luo, Emphysema early diagnosis using X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging at synchrotron light source. Biomed. Eng. Online 13(1), 82 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. D.M. Connor, Z. Zhong, H.D. Foda, S. Wiebe, C.A. Parham, F.A. Dilmanian, E.B. Cole, E.D. Pisano, Diffraction enhanced imaging of a rat model of gastric acid aspiration pneumonitis. Acad. Radiol. 18(12), 1515–1521 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. M.J. Kitchen, D.M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B.J. Allison, R.A. Lewis, S.B. Hooper, K.M. Pavlov, Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal. Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. M.J. Kitchen, R.A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, D. Paganin, S.B. Hooper, G. Adams, S. Jureczek, J. Singh, C.R. Christensen et al., Phase contrast X-ray imaging of mice and rabbit lungs: a comparative study. Br. J. Radiol. 78, 1018–1027 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, F. Pfeiffer, In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast X-ray imaging. Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. F. Schwab, S. Schleede, D. Hahn, M. Bech, J. Herzen, S. Auweter, F. Bamberg, K. Achterhold, A.O. Yildirim, A. Bohla et al., Comparison of contrast-to-noise ratios of transmission and dark-field signal in grating-based X-ray imaging for healthy murine lung tissue. Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 236–242 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. F.G. Meinel, F. Schwab, S. Schleede, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, S. Auweter, F. Bamberg, A.Ö. Yildirim, A. Bohla et al., Diagnosing and mapping pulmonary emphysema on X-ray projection images: incremental value of grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging. PloS One 8(3), e59526 (2013)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. F.G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A.Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg et al., Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging—a feasibility study. Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. A. Yaroshenko, F.G. Meinel, K. Hellbach, M. Bech, A. Velroyen, M. Müller, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, M.F. Reiser, A. Yildirim et al., Small-animal dark-field radiography for pulmonary emphysema evaluation, in Medical Imaging 2014: Physics of Medical Imaging, vol. 9033 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), p. 90331M

  28. H. Einarsdottir, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, S. Auweter, Ö. Yildirim, F.G. Meinel, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser et al., Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary diseases using X-ray darkfield radiography. Phys. Med. Biol. 60(24), 9253 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. T. Koenig, M. Zuber, B. Trimborn, T. Farago, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, F. Albrecht, S. Kreuer, T. Volk, M. Fiederle et al., On the origin and nature of the grating interferometric dark-field contrast obtained with low-brilliance X-ray sources. Phys. Med. Biol. 61(9), 3427 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. K. Scherer, A. Yaroshenko, D.A. Bölükbas, L.B. Gromann, K. Hellbach, F.G. Meinel, M. Braunagel, J. Von Berg, O. Eickelberg, M.F. Reiser et al., X-ray dark-field radiography-in-vivo diagnosis of lung cancer in mice. Sci. Rep. 7(1), 402 (2017)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. L.B. Gromann, F. De Marco, K. Willer, P.B. Noël, K. Scherer, B. Renger, B. Gleich, K. Achterhold, A.A. Fingerle, D. Muenzel et al., In-vivo X-ray dark-field chest radiography of a pig. Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4807 (2017)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. P. Modregger, T.P. Cremona, C. Benarafa, J.C. Schittny, A. Olivo, M. Endrizzi, Small angle X-ray scattering with edge-illumination. Sci. Rep. 6, 30940 (2016)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Y. Suzuki, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, X-ray refraction-enhanced imaging and a method for phase retrieval for a simple object. J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(3), 160–165 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. M.J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R.A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, S.T. Mudie, On the origin of speckle in X-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue. Phys. Med. Biol. 49(18), 4335 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. S.B. Hooper, M.J. Kitchen, M.J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M.J. Morgan, C. Hall, K.K.W. Siu, I.M. Williams, M. Siew et al., Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth. FASEB J. 21(12), 3329–3337 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. M.A. Beltran, D.M. Paganin, K.K.W. Siu, A. Fouras, S.B. Hooper, D.H. Reser, M.J. Kitchen, Interface-specific X-ray phase retrieval tomography of complex biological organs. Phys. Med. Biol. 56(23), 7353 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. J. Zhang, Y. Chen, G. Li, X. Jiang, Imaging characters of the lung cancer phantoms under the simulative clinical condition performed with hard X-ray in-line holography. J. Instrum. 8(07), C07002 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. M.J. Kitchen, G.A. Buckley, A.F.T. Leong, R.P. Carnibella, A. Fouras, M.J. Wallace, S.B. Hooper, X-ray specks: low dose in vivo imaging of lung structure and function. Phys. Med. Biol. 60(18), 7259 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, K. Yamasaki, Refraction-enhanced X-ray imaging of mouse lung using synchrotron radiation source. Med. Phys. 26(10), 2190–2193 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. A.N. Khromova, F. Arfelli, H.J. Besch, H. Plothow-Besch, R.H. Menk, L. Rigon, Monte Carlo simulation of X-ray multiple refractive scattering from fine structure objects imaged with the DEI technique, in Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2004, IEEE, vol. 6 (IEEE, 2004), pp. 4014–4018

  41. Y.I. Nesterets, P. Coan, T.E. Gureyev, A. Bravin, P. Cloetens, S.W. Wilkins, On qualitative and quantitative analysis in analyser-based imaging. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A Found. Crystallogr. 62(4), 296–308 (2006)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. P.C. Diemoz, P. Coan, C. Glaser, A. Bravin, Absorption, refraction and scattering in analyzer-based imaging: comparison of different algorithms. Opt. Express 18(4), 3494–3509 (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. M.N. Wernick, Y. Yang, I. Mondal, D. Chapman, M. Hasnah, C. Parham, E. Pisano, Z. Zhong, Computation of mass-density images from X-ray refraction-angle images. Phys. Med. Biol. 51(7), 1769 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We sincerely appreciated the kind assistance of the staff of the 4W1A beamline of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility and the BL13W1 beamline of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Our researches are funded by NSFC 11305200, NSFC U1732108, NSFC 11675208 and NSFC 11627901.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yu Chen.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, K., Chen, Y., Sun, R. et al. Exploring potential of different X-ray imaging methods for early-stage lung cancer detection. Radiat Detect Technol Methods 4, 213–221 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41605-020-00173-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41605-020-00173-1

Keywords

  • X-ray phase-contrast imaging
  • X-ray absorption-contrast imaging
  • Lung cancer screening
  • Monte Carlo simulation