Skip to main content

Development and Validation of the Perceived Introversion Mistreatment Scale

Abstract

Perceived introversion mistreatment (PIM) has been discussed extensively in the popular press and online community, but has yet to be studied empirically, despite negative implications of PIM for employees and organizations. To assist fellow researchers who are interested in conducting research on this topic, the purpose of the present study was to develop and provide initial validation evidence for a measure of PIM. This study incorporated five independent samples, 974 participants, and multiwave (three months between administrations) and multisource data (social network individuals and work peers). The results indicate that the 10-item Perceived Introversion Mistreatment Scale (PIMS) is a reliable, unidimensional measure whose measurement is not biased by affect and is related to but discriminant from age, gender, and ethnic discrimination in addition to incivility, bullying, perceived organizational support, and leader member exchange. Further, PIM predicted CWB-O, symptoms of poor physical health, anxiety, depression, job satisfaction, and affective commitment above and beyond several mistreatment measures. Overall, the PIMS displays satisfactory psychometric properties and can offer valuable insight into workplace mistreatment beyond the topics currently studied in the mistreatment literature. Directions for future research and limitations are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Data Availability

The data used in this study will be publically available at The Data Repository for University of Minnesota https://conservancy.umn.edu/handle/11299/166578

References

Download references

Code Availability

Not applicable.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mallory A. McCord.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

ESM 1

(DOCX 25 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

McCord, M.A. Development and Validation of the Perceived Introversion Mistreatment Scale. Occup Health Sci 5, 437–471 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41542-021-00095-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41542-021-00095-4

Keywords

  • Measure development
  • Introversion
  • Workplace mistreatment
  • Measure validation
  • Discrimination