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Cyclic carbonate–siliciclastic sedimentation in a shallow marine to coastal environment (latest Kimmeridgian–early Tithonian, Galve sub-basin, Spain)

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Abstract

The sedimentological analysis of the uppermost Kimmeridgian to lower Tithonian Villar del Arzobispo Formation (Galve sub-basin, NE Spain) has allowed characterizing different carbonate, mixed and siliciclastic facies deposited in coastal to shallow marine areas. Its age calibration has been specified on the basis of new biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data. Four successive sequences (30–80 m thick) characterized by the relative dominance of carbonate and siliciclastic facies reflect a sedimentary change from reciprocal to mixed carbonate–siliciclastic sedimentation. Sequences 1 and 2 are reciprocal sedimentation cycles from carbonate-dominated (muddy coastal plain-carbonate lagoon) to siliciclastic coasts (muddy coastal plain-wave dominated delta). Sequence S3 is also reciprocal, from a mixed carbonate–siliciclastic coastal plain-lagoon at the lower part to a wave-dominated delta on top. A mixed carbonate–siliciclastic coastal plain-lagoon characterizes the entire sequence 4. Climate and tectonics controlled carbonate deposition and siliciclastic supply. Reciprocal sedimentation in sequences 1–3 was controlled by orbitally-driven climate changes (from arid to humid conditions) on the age range of long-term eccentricity cycles. A greater imprint of extensional synsedimentary tectonics at the upper part of sequence 3 and during sequence 4 is thought to be the main factor producing the gradual opening of the sub-basin to the wave influence and a more continuous siliciclastic supply, then controlling the change from reciprocal to mixed sedimentation and obliterating the possible imprint of orbitally-induced climatic changes.

Resumen

El análisis sedimentológico de la Formación Villar del Arzobispo (sub-cuenca de Galve, NE España), de edad Kimmeridgiense superior a Titoniense inferior ha permitido caracterizar diferentes facies carbonatadas, mixtas y siliciclásticas depositadas en áreas costeras a marinas someras. Su calibración temporal ha sido especificada aportando nuevos datos bioestratigráficos y quimioestratigráficos. Cuatro secuencias sucesivas (de 30 a 80 m de espesor) caracterizadas por el dominio relativo de facies carbonatadas y siliciclásticas reflejan un cambio desde sedimentación recíproca a mixta carbonatada-siliciclástica. Las secuencias 1 y 2 son ciclos de sedimentación recíproca con depósitos carbonatados (llanura costera-laguna carbonatadas) y siliciclásticos (llanura costera a delta dominado por oleaje). La secuencia 3 es también recíproca, registrando una llanura costera-laguna somera mixta carbonatada-siliciclástica en su parte inferior, y un delta dominado por oleaje en la superior. La secuencia 4 está caracterizada por una llanura costera-laguna somera mixta carbonatada-siliciclástica. El clima y la tectónica controlaron la sedimentación carbonatada y los aportes siliciclásticos. Cambios climáticos (condiciones áridas a húmedas) inducidos por factores orbitales controlaron la sedimentación recíproca en las secuencias 1 a 3. La mayor influencia de la actividad tectónica extensiva sinsedimentaria en la parte superior de la secuencia 3 y durante la secuencia 4 se ha propuesto como el factor principal que produjo una apertura gradual de la sub-cuenca a la influencia del oleaje y un aporte siliciclástico más continuo, controlando el cambio de sedimentación recíproca a mixta y obliterando el posible registro de los cambios climáticos orbitales.

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Adapted from Aurell et al. (2016), Liesa et al. (2018) and Bádenas et al. (2018)

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Acknowledgements

This work has been supported by the project CGL2017-85038-P subsidized by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, the European Regional Development Fund and the project H54 of the Government of Aragón (‘Grupos Consolidados’ and ‘Dirección General de Patrimonio Cultural’). Diego Castanera is supported by AGAUR, (Beatriu de Pinós Programme, BP2017). The authors are sincerely thankful to Telm Bover Arnal and another anonymous reviewer, whose useful suggestions have improved the quality of this paper.

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Val, J., Aurell, M., Bádenas, B. et al. Cyclic carbonate–siliciclastic sedimentation in a shallow marine to coastal environment (latest Kimmeridgian–early Tithonian, Galve sub-basin, Spain). J Iber Geol 45, 195–222 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41513-018-00098-1

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