Pelvic and femoral anatomy of the Allodaposuchidae (Crocodyliformes, Eusuchia) from the Late Cretaceous of Lo Hueco (Cuenca, Spain)

Research paper

Abstract

Purpose

The fossil record of postcranial remains assigned to Allodaposuchidae is currently sparse. However, the Late Cretaceous paleontological site of Lo Hueco (Cuenca, Spain), from where two new taxa of allodaposuchid have been described, has yielded numerous postcranial remains assignable to this clade. Among them, the large amount of pelvic and femoral material is notable, providing the opportunity to study these allodaposuchid elements and assess their morphological similarity with other eusuchian remains.

Methods

The comparison with extant crocodylians was accomplished using traditional morphometric techniques, whereas the comparison with other fossils and establishment of morphotypes was done using morphological criteria.

Results

The results of the cluster and principal components analyses show morphological differences between extant crocodylians and allodaposuchids from Lo Hueco, allowing the segregation of these lineages. The similarities found between the pelvic and femoral remains from Lo Hueco, and those referred to Allodaposuchus precedens and other putative allodaposuchids from the Iberian Peninsula, allows referral of these remains to allodaposuchids. The differences found among the femoral and pelvic remains of Lo Hueco enables us to recognize two morphotypes per each element.

Conclusions

This study allows a better understanding of allodaposuchid postcranial elements that were previously poorly known. The ilia, ischia and femora from Lo Hueco allodaposuchids are distinct from those of other crocodylian lineages. Finally, the fact that there are two morphotypes per each element at Lo Hueco is congruent with the presence of two different allodaposuchids at the site.

Keywords

Allodaposuchidae Iberian Peninsula Postcranial Morphometrics PCA 

Resumen

Propósito

El registro fósil contiene escasos restos postcraneales asignados a Allodaposuchidae. Sin embargo, en el yacimiento paleontológico del Cretácico Superior de Lo Hueco (Cuenca, España), del cual se han descrito dos nuevas especies de alodaposúquido, se han recuperado numerosos restos fósiles postcraneales asignables a este clado. Entre ellos destaca la cantidad de restos pélvicos y fémorales recuperados. Esto ofrece la oportunidad de estudiarlos y evaluar su semejanza morfológica con restos de otros eusuquios.

Métodos

La comparación con cocodrilos actuales se realizó empleando técnicas morfométricas tradicionales, mientras que la comparación con otros restos fósiles y el establecimiento de morfotipos se efectuó utilizando criterios morfológicos.

Resultados

Los resultados de los análisis de clúster y de componentes principales muestran que existen diferencias morfológicas entre los restos de cocodrilos actuales y los restos de los alodaposúquidos de Lo Hueco, permitiendo la segregación de estos linajes. La similitud encontrada entre los restos pélvicos y femorales de Lo Hueco, y aquellos asignados a Allodaposuchus precedens y otros supuestos alodaposúquidos de la península ibérica, permite asignar estos restos a alodaposúquidos. Las diferencias encontradas entre el material femoral y pélvico de Lo Hueco permite reconocer dos morfotipos para cada elemento postcraneal estudiado.

Conclusiones

El presente estudio posibilita un mejor entendimiento de estos restos postcraneales en alodaposúquidos, previamente poco conocidos. Los iliones, isquiones y fémures de los alodaposúquidos de Lo Hueco son distintos de los de miembros de los linajes de Crocodylia. Por último, el hecho de que existan dos morfotipos de cada elemento estudiado de Lo Hueco es congruente con la presencia de dos especies distintas de alodaposúquido en el yacimiento.

Palabras clave

Allodaposuchidae Península ibérica postcraneal morfometría PCA 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thanks M. Padilla, MACV, and M. Calvo, MNCN, for specimen access. Special thanks to members of Grupo de Biología Evolutiva (UNED) and F. Marcos (UCM) for the preparation of the specimens. Thanks also to C. Brochu and M. Delfino for their useful comments, suggestions and language corrections.

Supplementary material

41513_2017_44_MOESM1_ESM.docx (103 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 103 kb)

References

  1. Barroso-Barcenilla, F., Cambra-Moo, O., Escaso, F., Ortega, F., Pascual, A., Pérez-García, A., et al. (2009). New and exceptional discovery in the Upper Cretaceous of the Iberian Peninsula: The palaeontological site of “Lo Hueco”, Cuenca, Spain. Cretaceous Research, 30, 1268–1278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blanco, A., Fortuny, J., Vicente, A., Luján, A. H., García-Marçà, J. A., & Sellés, A. G. (2015). A new species of Allodaposuchus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia) from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Spain: Phylogenetic and paleobiological implications. PeerJ, 3, e1171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blanco, A., Puértolas-Pascual, E., Marmi, J., Vila, B., & Sellés, A. G. (2014). Allodaposuchus palustris sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Fumanya (South-Eastern Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula): Systematics, Palaeoecology and Palaeobiogeography of the Enigmatic Allodaposuchian Crocodylians. PLoS One, 9(12), e115837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brochu, C. A. (1992). Ontogeny of the postcranium in crocodylomorph archosaurs. Unpublished Master of Arts Thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, p. 340.Google Scholar
  5. Brochu, C. A. (1999). Phylogenetics, taxonomy, and historical biogeography of alligatoroidea. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Memoir 6, 19(2), 9–100.Google Scholar
  6. Buffetaut, E. (1975). Sur l’anatomie et la position systématique de Bernissartia fagesii Dollo, L., 1883, crocodilien du Wealdien de Bernissart, Belgique. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique Sciences de la Terre, 51(2), 1–20.Google Scholar
  7. Buscalioni, A. D., Ortega, F., Weishampel, D. B., & Jianu, C. M. (2001). A revision of the crocodyliform Allodaposuchus precedens from the Upper Cretaceous of the Haţeg Basin, Romania. Its relevance in the phylogeny of Eusuchia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21(1), 74–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buscalioni, A. D., Piras, P., Vullo, R., Signore, M., & Barbera, C. (2011). Early eusuchia crocodylomorpha from the vertebrate-rich Plattenkalk of Pietraroia (Lower Albian, southern Apennines, Italy). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163, 199–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buscalioni, A. D., & Sanz, J. L. (1990). The small crocodile Bernissartia fagesii from the Lower Cretaceous of Galve (Teruel, Spain). Bulletin de L’institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 60, 129–150.Google Scholar
  10. Chamero, B., Buscalioni, A. D., & Marugán, J. (2013). Pectoral girdle and forelimb variation in extant Crocodylia: The coracoid-humerus pair as an evolutionary module. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 108, 600–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Claessens, L. P. A. M., & Vickaryous, M. K. (2012). The evolution, development and skeletal identity of the crocodylian pelvis: Revisiting a forgotten scientific debate. Journal of Morphology, 273, 1185–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dollo, L. (1883). Première note sur les crocodiliens de Bernissart. Bulletin du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, 2, 309–338.Google Scholar
  13. Erickson, B. R. (1976). Osteology of the early eusuchian crocodile Leidyosuchus formidabilis, sp. nov. Monographs of the Science Museum of Minnesota, 2, 1–61.Google Scholar
  14. Farlow, J. O., & Elsey, R. M. (2004). Femoral dimensions and mid-thigh circumference in Alligator mississippiensis: estimating the size of extinct mesoeucrocodylians. Lethaia, 37, 401–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T., & Ryan, P. D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
  16. IBM Corporation (2011). IBM SPSS Statistics for Macintosh, v 20.0. Armonk, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Martin, J. E., Delfino, M., Garcia, G., Godefroit, P., Berton, S., & Valentin, X. (2015). New specimens of Allodaposuchus precedens from France: Intraspecific variability and the diversity of European Late Cretaceous eusuchians. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 176(3), 607–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Narváez, I., Brochu, C. A., Escaso, F., Pérez-García, A., & Ortega, F. (2015). New Crocodyliforms from Southwestern Europe and definition of a diverse clade of European Late Cretaceous basal eusuchians. PLoS One, 10(11), e0140679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Narváez, I., Brochu, C. A., Escaso, F., Pérez-García, A., & Ortega, F. (2016). New Spanish Late Cretaceous eusuchian reveals the synchronic and sympatric presence of two allodaposuchids. Cretaceous Research, 65, 112–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Narváez, I., Brochu, C. A., Escaso, F., Pérez-García, A., & Ortega, F. (2017). Analysis and phylogenetic status of the eusuchian fragmentary material from Western Europe assigned to Allodaposuchus precedens. Journal of Iberian Geology, 43(2), 345–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nopcsa, F. B. (1928). Palaeontological notes on Reptilia. 7. Classification of the Crocodilia. Geologica Hungarica, Series Palaeontologica, 1, 75–84.Google Scholar
  22. Ortega, F., Bardet, N., Barroso-Barcenilla, F., Callapez, P. M., Cambra-Moo, O., Daviero-Gómez, V., et al. (2015). The biota of the Upper Cretaceous site of Lo Hueco (Cuenca, Spain). Journal of Iberian Geology, 41(1), 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pol, D., Turner, A. H., & Norell, M. A. (2009). The Late Cretaceous crocodylomorp Shamosuchus djadochtaensis and a discussion of neosuchian phylogeny as related to the origin of Eusuchia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 324, 1–103.Google Scholar
  24. Puértolas, E., Canudo, J. I., & Cruzado-Caballero, P. (2011). New crocodylian from the late Maastrichtian of Spain: Implications for the initial radiation of crocodyloids. PLoS One, 6(6), e20011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Puértolas, E., Canudo, J. I., & Moreno-Azanza, M. (2013). The eusuchian crocodylomorph Allodaposuchus subjuniperus sp. nov., a new species from the latest Cretaceous (upper Maastrichtian) of Spain. Historical Biology, 26(1), 91–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rogers, J. V. (2003). Pachycheilosuchus trinquei, a new procoelus crocodyliform from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Glen Rose Formation of Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(1), 128–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Romer, A. S. (1956). Osteology of the reptiles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  28. Strauss, R. E., & Atanassov, M. N. (2006). Determining best complete subsets of specimens and characters for multivariate morphometric studies in presence of large amounts of missing data. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 88, 309–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Strauss, R. E., Atanassov, M. N., & de Oliveira, J. A. (2003). Evaluation of the principal-component and expectation-maximization methods for estimating missing data in morphometric studies. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(2), 284–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grupo de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de CienciasUNEDMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations