Advertisement

Persönlichkeitsmerkmale als Segmentierungsvariablen: Eine empirische Studie

  • Friederike PaetzEmail author
Originalartikel

Zusammenfassung

Klassischen Segmentierungsvariablen wie Demografie oder Psychografie wird häufig die Fähigkeit Präferenzheterogenität widerzuspiegeln abgesprochen. Daher werden zunehmend Conjoint-basierte Segmentierungsverfahren eingesetzt, die Personen präferenzbasiert klassifizieren. Im Rahmen der psychografischen Segmentierung wurden mit Wertevorstellungen und Lifestyle bisher jedoch nur zwei Variablentypen tiefergehend untersucht. Persönlichkeitsmerkmale wurden hingegen kaum betrachtet. Dieser Beitrag zeigt anhand einer empirischen Studie, dass Persönlichkeitsmerkmale, die über das Five-Factor Modell operationalisiert werden, sehr wohl ein diskriminatorisches Potential aufweisen. Dies differenziert die pauschale Aussage der Nicht-Eignung psychografischer Variablen zur Segmentierung.

Schlüsselwörter

Five-Factor Modell Conjoint-Analyse Finite Mixture Logit Modell 

Personality traits for market segmentation: An empirical study

Abstract

The ability of classical segmentation variables (demographics, psychographics etc.) to reflect preference heterogeneity is often denied. Therefore, the use of conjoint-based methods for market segmentation increases. So far, the literature has focused on two types of psychographic variables (personal values and lifestyle). Personality traits in contrast, were less considered yet. This article is based on an empirical study and discovers that personality traits which are operationalized through the five-factor model show a discriminative potential. This differentiates the general statement that psychografic variables are inappropriate for segmentation.

Keywords

Five-Factor Model Conjoint-Analysis Finite Mixture Logit Model 

JEL-Classification

M31-C38 

Literatur

  1. Allsopp, John F. 1986. Personality as a determinant of beer and cider consumption among young men. Personality and Individual Differences 7:341–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, Rick L., und Imran S. Currim. 2003. A comparison of segment retention criteria for finite mixture logit models. Journal of Marketing Research 60:235–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews, Rick L., Andrew Ainslie, und Imran S. Currim. 2002. An empirical comparison of logit choice models with discrete versus continuous representations of heterogeneity. Journal of Marketing Research 39:479–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asendorpf, Jens B. 2004. Psychologie der Persönlichkeit, 3. Aufl., Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bozdogan, Hamparsum. 1987. Model selection and akaike’s information criterion (aic): The general theory and its analytical extensions. Psychometrika 52:345–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brangule-Vlagsma, Kristine, Rik G. Pieters, und M. Wedel. 2002. The dynamics of value segments: modeling framework and empirical illustration. International Journal of Research in Marketing 19:267–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brody, Robert P., und Scott M. Cunningham. 1968. Personality variables and the consumer decision process. Journal of Marketing Research 5:50–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Camarena, Dena M., und Ana I. Sanjuán. 2009. The influence of psychographic variables on consumer preferences. The case of ethnic food in spain. 113th EAAE Seminar, Chania, Greece, September 3–6, 2009.Google Scholar
  9. Chapman, Benjamin P., Paul R. Duberstein, Silvia Sörensen, und Jeffrey M. Lyness. 2007. Gender differences in five factor personality traits in an elderly cohort: Extension of robust and surprising findings to an elderly generation. Personality and Individual Differences 43:1594–1603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chow, Simeon, und Sarit Amir. 2006. The universality of values: implications for global advertising strategy. Journal of Advertising Research 46:301–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Costa, Paul T., und Robert R. McCrae. 1992. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  12. Costa, Paul T., und Robert R. McCrae. 1997. Longitudinal stability of adult personality. In Handbook of personality psychology, Hrsg. Robert Hogan, John A. Johnson, Stephen R. Briggs, 269–290. San Diego: Academic Press Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Costa Jr., Paul T., Antonio Terracciano, und Robert R. McCrae. 2001. Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81:322–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Currim, Imran S. 1981. Using segmentation approaches for better prediction and understanding from consumer mode choice models. Journal of Marketing Research 18:301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Daniel, Ines. 2014. Lebensstilsegmentierung aufgrund einer inhaltsbasierten Auswertung digitaler Bilder. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Daniel, Ines, und Daniel Baier. 2013. Lifestyle segmentation based on contents of preferred images versus ratings of items. In Studies in classification, data analysis, and knowledge organization, Bd. 46, 439–448.Google Scholar
  17. DeSarbo, Wayne S., und Christian F. DeSarbo. 2007. A generalized normative segmentation methodology employing conjoint analysis. In Conjoint measurement, 4. Aufl., Hrsg. Anders Gustafsson, Andreas Hermann, Frank Huber, 321–346. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. DeSarbo, Wayne S., Venkatram Ramaswamy, und Steven H. Cohen. 1995. Market segmentation with choice-based conjoint analysis. Marketing Letters 6:137–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Digman, John M. 1990. Personality structure: emergence of the five factor model. Annual Review of Psychology 41:417–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Digman, John M. 1996. The curious history of the five-factor model. In The Five-Factor Model of Personality, Hrsg. Jerry S. Wiggins, 1–20. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  21. Digman, John M., und Jilian Inouye. 1986. Further specification of the five robust factors of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50:116–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dubey, Charu, Meenakshi Arora, Sanjay Gupta, und Bipin Kumar. 2010. Five factor correlates: A comparison of substance abusers and non-substance abusers. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology 36:107–114.Google Scholar
  23. Edwards, Alan L. 1957. Edwards personal preference schedule manual. New York: Psychological Corp.Google Scholar
  24. Evans, Franklin B. 1959. Psychological and objective factors in the prediction of brand choice ford versus chevrolet. The Journal of Business 32:340–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eysenck, Hans J. 1967. The biological basis of personality. Springfield: Thomas.Google Scholar
  26. Fehr, Theo. 2006. Big Five: Fünf grundlegende Dimensionen der Persönlichkeit und ihre 30 Facetten. In Persönlichkeitsmodelle und Persönlichkeitstests, Hrsg. Walter Simon, 113–135. Offenbach: GABAL.Google Scholar
  27. Fennell, Geraldine, Greg M. Allenby, Sha Yang, und Yancy Edwards. 2003. The effectiveness of demographic and psychographic variables for explaining brand and product category use. Quantitative Marketing and Economics 1:223–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Flanagan, Scott C., und Aie-Rie Lee. 2000. Value change and democratic reform in Japan and Korea. Comparative Political Studies 33:626–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gao, Shang, Zhihao Chen, Wenying Zheng, und Wenyan Zhou. 2012. An exploratory study on lifestyles and the adoption of mobile services in China. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia, 13–16.Google Scholar
  30. Gensler, Sonja. 2003. Heterogenität in der Präferenzanalyse: Ein Vergleich von hierarchischen Bayes-Modellen und Finite-Mixture-Modellen. Wiesbaden: DUV.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goldberg, Lewis R. 1981. Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons. In Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 2. Aufl., Hrsg. Ladd Wheeler, 141–166. Beverly Hills: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  32. Goldberg, Lewis R. 1992. The development of markers for the big- five factor structure. Psychological Assessment 4:26–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. González, Ana M., und Laurentino Bello. 2002. The construct lifestyle in market segmentation. European Journal of Marketing 36:51–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gosling, Samuel D., Peter J. Rentfrow, und William B. Swann Jr.. 2003. A very brief measure of the big-five personality domains. Journal of Research in Psychology 37:504–528.Google Scholar
  35. Green, Paul E. 1977. A new approach to market segmentation. Business Horizons 20:61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Green, Paul E., und Abba M. Krieger. 1991. Segmenting markets with conjoint analysis. Journal of Marketing 55:20–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hagerty, Michael R. 1985. Improving the predictive power of conjoint analysis: The use of factor analysis and cluster analysis. Journal of Marketing Research 22:168–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Haley, Russell I. 1968. Benefit segmentation: A decision-oriented research tool. Journal of Marketing 32:30–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Haugtvedt, Curtis P., Richard E. Petty, und John P. Cacioppo. 1992. Need for Cognition and Advertising: Understanding the Role of Personality Variables in Consumer Behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology 1:239–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hur, Won-Moo, Hyun K. Kim, und Jung Kun Park. 2010. Food- and situation-specific lifestyle segmentation of kitchen appliance market. British Food Journal 112:294–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. John, Oliver P., und Sanjay Srivastava. 1999. The big five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In Handbook of personality: Theory and research, 2. Aufl., Hrsg. Lawrence A. Pervin, Oliver John, 102–138. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  42. Kahle, Lynn R. 1983. Social values and social change: adaptation to life in America. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  43. Kahle, Lynn R., Sharron E. Beatty, und Pamela Homer. 1986. Alternative measurement approaches to consumer values: The List of Values (LOV) and Life Styles (VALS). Journal of Consumer Research 13:405–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kamakura, Wagner A., und Gary J. Russel. 1989. A probabilistic choice model for market segmentation and elasticity structures. Journal of Marketing Research 26:379–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kassarjian, Harold H. 1971. Personality and consumer behavior: A review. Journal of Marketing Research 8:409–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ko, Eunju, Eunyoung Kim, Charles Taylor, Kyung H. Kim, und Ie.J. Kang. 2007. Cross-national market segmentation in the fashion industry. International Marketing Review 24:629–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kucukemiroglu, und Osray. 1999. Market Segmentation by using consumer lifestyle dimensions and ethnocentrism: An empirical study. European Journal of Marketing 33:470–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lazar, William. 1963. Lifestyle concepts and marketing. In Toward scientific marketing, Hrsg. Stephen A. Greyser, 130–139. Chicago: American Marketing Association.Google Scholar
  49. Lin, Chin-Feng. 2002. Segmenting customer brand preference: demographic or psychographic. Journal of Product & Brand Management 11:249–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Luce, Duncan R., und John W. Tukey. 1964. Simultaneous conjoint measurement: A new type of fundamental measurement. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 1:1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Malouff, John M., Einar B. Thorsteinsson, Sally E. Rooke, und Nicola S. Schutte. 2007. Alcohol involvement and the five-factor model of personality: A metaanalysis. Journal of Drug Education 37:277–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marchand, June, und Zakaria Khallaayoune. 2010. ‘LOV’ and the big screen: A value-system segmentation of movie goers. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing 18:177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McCrae, Robert R., und Paul T. Costa Jr.. 2008. Five factor theory of personality. In Handbook of Personality, 3. Aufl., Hrsg. Oliver P. John, Richard W. Robins, Lawrence A. Pervin, 159–181. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  54. McCrae, Robert R., und John P. Oliver. 1992. An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality 60:175–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McCrae, Robert R., und Angelina R. Sutin. 2009. Openness to experience. In Handbook of individual differences in social behavior, Hrsg. Mark R. Leary, Rick H. Hoyle, 257–273. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  56. McCrae, Robert R., Paul T. Costa Jr., Margarida Pedroso de Lima, Antonio Simınes, Fritz Ostendorf, Alois Angleiter, Iris Marusic, Denis Bratko, Gian V. Caprara, Claudio Barbaranelli, Joon-Ho Chae, und Ralph L. Piedmont. 1999. Age differences in personality across the adult life span: Parallels in five cultures. Developmental Psychology 35:466–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McLachlan, Geoffrey J., und Thriyambakam Krishnan. 2007. The EM algorithm and extensions, 2. Aufl., Hoboken.Google Scholar
  58. MediaAnalyzer. 2013. BIER: Marken-Awareness, Markentreue und Lieblingssorten. http://docplayer.org/14514768-Bier-marken-awareness-markentreue-und-lieblingssorten.html. Zugegriffen: 28. Jan. 2016.Google Scholar
  59. Mitchell, Arnold. 1983. The nine american life-styles. New York: Warner.Google Scholar
  60. Newton, Peter, und Denny Meyer. 2013. Exploring the attitudes-action gap in household resource consumption: does environmental lifestyle-segmentation align with consumer behavior? Sustainability 5:1211–1233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rokeach, Milton. 1973. The nature of human values. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  62. Saum-Aldehoff, Thomas. 2012. Big Five: Sich selbst und andere erkennen, 2. Aufl., Ostfildern: Patmos.Google Scholar
  63. Smith, Wendell R. 1956. Product differentiation and market segmentation as alternative marketing strategies. Journal of Marketing 21:3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Steiner, Winfried, und Bernhard Baumgartner. 2004. Conjoint-Analyse und Marktsegmentierung. Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft 74:611–635.Google Scholar
  65. Swinyard, William R., und Scott M. Smith. 2003. Why people (don’t) shop Online: A lifestyle study of the Internet consumer. In Psychology & Marketing, Bd. 20, 567–597.Google Scholar
  66. Train, Kenneth E. 2003. Discrete choice methods with simulation. Boston: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tuma, Michael N., und Reinhold Decker. 2013. Finite mixture models in market segmentation: A review and suggestions for best practices. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods 11:2–15.Google Scholar
  68. Vollrath, Margarete, und Svenn Torgensen. 2002. Who takes health risks? A probe into eight personality types. Personality an Individual Differences 32:1185–1197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Vyncke, Patrick. 2002. Lifestyle segmentation. European Journal of Communication 17:445–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wang, Eric T.G., His-Yin Yeh, und James J. Jiang. 2006. The relative weights of Internet shopping fundamental objectives: effect of lifestyle differences. Psychology & Marketing 23:353–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wedel, Michel, und Wagner Kamakura. 2000. Market segmentation – conceptual and methodological foundations, 2. Aufl., Norwell: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Schmalenbach-Gesellschaft für Betriebswirtschaft e.V. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Lehrstuhl für BWL und MarketingTU ClausthalClausthal-ZellerfeldDeutschland

Personalised recommendations