Executive functions like working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility are a set of neurocognitive processes involved in reasoning, planning, and self-regulatory skills that allow goal-oriented behaviors. Mounting evidence supports the importance of these processes for educational success from early on. Executive functions can be improved by employing computerized activities. However, most of the evidence with gamified tasks comes from controlled studies in laboratory settings, while the efficiency of interventions deployed in real-world circumstances is scarce. Furthermore, the effectiveness of an intervention might be modulated by school socioeconomic status, but the evidence in this regard is still limited. The present study examined the efficiency of a short training program, aimed to stimulate executive functions, deployed in high- and low-socioeconomic school kindergarten classes. One hundred and thirty-six children (M = 5.30, SD = 0.36 years old) participated in a randomized, pre/post, controlled design. Data were analyzed with multilevel analysis. We found that all children that participated in the training group improved their working memory span and performance in a fluid intelligence task. Gains in inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility were observed only in children from low socioeconomic background schools. We also explored far-transfer effects on non-trained skills. We found no evidence of improved performance in a planning task, or classroom behaviors typically associated with executive functions. Our results show that it is possible to promote cognitive development in kindergarteners through video games played within classrooms of diverse sociocultural contexts.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Similar content being viewed by others
The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Cognitive stimulation group
Proportion of Correct Answers
ANEP. (2016). Relevamiento de características socioculturales de las escuelas públicas del Consejo de Educación Inicial y Primaria, 2015.
Barnes, S. P., Bailey, R., & Jones, S. M. (2021). Evaluating the Impact of a Targeted Approach Designed to Build Executive Function Skills: A Randomized Trial of Brain Games. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 655246. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.655246
Barnett, W. S., Jung, K., Yarosz, D. J., Thomas, J., Hornbeck, A., Stechuk, R., & Burns, S. (2008). Educational effects of the Tools of the Mind curriculum: A randomized trial. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(3), 299–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2008.03.001
Bates, D., Mächler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S. (2015). Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01
Black, M. M., Walker, S. P., Fernald, L. C. H., Andersen, C. T., Digirolamo, A. M., Lu, C., Mccoy, D. C., Fink, G., Shawar, Y. R., Shiff Man, J., Devercelli, A. E., Wodon, Q. T., Vargas-Barón, E., & Grantham-Mcgregor, S. (2016). Early childhood development coming of age: Science through the life course. The Lancet, 6736(16). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31389-7
Blair, C., & Ku, S. (2022). A Hierarchical Integrated Model of Self-Regulation. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 725828. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.725828
Blair, C., McKinnon, R. D., & Daneri, M. P. (2018). Effect of the tools of the mind kindergarten program on children’s social and emotional development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 43, 52–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.01.002
Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2016). Poverty, stress, and brain development: New directions for prevention and intervention. Academic Pediatrics, 16(3), S30–S36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2016.01.010
Brock, L. L., Murrah, W. M., Cottone, E. A., Mashburn, A. J., & Grissmer, D. W. (2018). An after-school intervention targeting executive function and visuospatial skills also improves classroom behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 42(5), 474–484. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025417738057
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological models of human development. Readings on the Development of Children, 3, 37–43. Retrieved Apr 3rd, 2022, from http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~siegler/35bronfebrenner94.pdf
Brown, L., Sherbenou, R., & Johnsen, S. (1997). TONI-3: Test of nonverbal intelligence (3rd ed.). Pro-Ed.
Cao, Y., Huang, T., Huang, J., Xie, X., & Wang, Y. (2020). Effects and moderators of computer-based training on children’s executive functions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. Retrieved Apr 3rd, 2022, from https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.580329
Chaudry, A., & Wimer, C. (2016). Poverty is Not Just an Indicator: The Relationship Between Income, Poverty, and Child Well-Being. Academic Pediatrics, 16(3, Supplement), S23–S29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2015.12.010
Coleman, T. E., & Money, A. G. (2020). Student-centred digital game–based learning: A conceptual framework and survey of the state of the art. Higher Education, 79(3), 415–457. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-019-00417-0
Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750
Diamond, A., & Ling, D. S. (2016). Conclusions about interventions, programs, and approaches for improving executive functions that appear justified and those that, despite much hype, do not. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 34–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2015.11.005
Diamond, A., Lee, C., Senften, P., Lam, A., & Abbott, D. (2019). Randomized control trial of Tools of the Mind: Marked benefits to kindergarten children and their teachers. PLoS One, 14(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222447
EASEL lab. Brain Games. Recovered on February 17th, 2023, from https://easel.gse.harvard.edu/brain-games
Evans, G. W., & Kim, P. (2013). Childhood poverty, chronic stress, self-regulation, and coping. Child Development Perspectives, 7(1), 43–48. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12013
Fitzpatrick, C., McKinnon, R. D., Blair, C. B., & Willoughby, M. T. (2014). Do preschool executive function skills explain the school readiness gap between advantaged and disadvantaged children? Learning and Instruction, 30, 25–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.11.003
Foy, J. G., & Mann, V. A. (2014). Adaptive Cognitive Training Enhances Executive Control and Visuospatial and Verbal Working Memory in Beginning Readers. International Education Research, 2(2), 19–43.
Galindo, C., & Sonnenschein, S. (2015). Decreasing the SES math achievement gap: Initial math proficiency and home learning environments. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 43, 25–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.08.003
Giovannetti, F., Pietto, M. L., Segretín, M. S., & Lipina, S. J. (2020). Impact of an individualized cognitive training intervention in preschoolers from poor homes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(8), 2912. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082912
Gobet, F., & Sala, G. (2023). Cognitive Training: A Field in Search of a Phenomenon. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 18(1), 125–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/17456916221091830
Goble, P., Flynn, T., Nauman, C., Almendarez, P., & Linstrom, M. (2021). Intervention Implementation of Tools of the Mind for Preschool Children’s Executive Functioning. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 624140. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.624140
Goldin, A. P., Segretin, M. S., Hermida, M., Paz, L., Lipina, S., Javier, N., & Sigman, M. (2013). Training planning and working memory in third graders. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7(2), 136–146. https://doi.org/10.1111/mbe.12019
Goldin, A. P., Hermida, M. J., Shalom, D. E., Elias Costa, M., Lopez-Rosenfeld, M., Segretin, M. S., Fernandez-Slezak, D., Lipina, S. J., & Sigman, M. (2014). Far transfer to language and math of a short software-based gaming intervention-Supplementary material. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(17), 6443–6448. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1320217111
Green, SC., Bavelier, D., Kramer, A. F., Vinogradov, S., Ansorge, U., Ball, K. K., Bingel, U., Chein, J. M., Colzato, L. S., Edwards, J. D., Facoetti, A., Gazzaley, A., Gathercole, S. E., Ghisletta, P., Gori, S., Granic, I., Hillman, C. H., Hommel, B., Jaeggi, S. M., … Witt, C. M. (2019). Improving Methodological Standards in Behavioral Interventions for Cognitive Enhancement. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, 3(1), 2–29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41465-018-0115-y
Hermida, M. J., Segretin, M. S., Prats, L. M., Fracchia, C. S., Colombo, J. A., & Lipina, S. J. (2015). Cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and education: Interdisciplinary development of an intervention for low socioeconomic status kindergarten children. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 4(1), 15–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tine.2015.03.003
Hermida, M. J., Shalom, D. E., Segretin, M. S., Goldin, A. P., Abril, M. C., Lipina, S. J., & Sigman, M. (2019). Risks for child cognitive development in rural contexts. Frontiers in Psychology, 9 https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02735
Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E., & Dunning, D. L. (2009). Adaptive training leads to sustained enhancement of poor working memory in children. Developmental Science, 12(4), 9–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00848.x
Inzlicht, M., Werner, K. M., Briskin, J. L., & Roberts, B. W. (2021). Integrating Models of Self-Regulation. Annual Review of Psychology, 72(1), 319–345. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-061020-105721
Isquith, P. K., Gioia, G. A., & Espy, K. A. (2004). Executive function in preschool children: Examination through everyday behaviour. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26(1), 403–422.
Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Perrig, W. J. (2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(19), 6829–6833. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0801268105
Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Shah, P., & Jonides, J. (2014). The role of individual differences in cognitive training and transfer. Memory & Cognition, 42(3), 464–480. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-013-0364-z
Kassai, R., Futo, J., Demetrovics, Z., & Takacs, Z. K. (2019). A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence on the near- and far-transfer effects among children’s executive function skills. Psychological Bulletin, 145(2), 165–188. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000180
Katz, B., Jaeggi, S., Buschkuehl, M., Stegman, A., & Shah, P. (2014). Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8. Retrieved February 17th, 2023, from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00242
Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., & Christensen, R. H. B. (2017). lmerTest Package: Tests in linear mixed effects models. Journal of Statistical Software, 82, 1–26.
Lenth, R. (2020). Mmeans: Estimated marginal means, aka least-squares means. R Package Version 1.5.0. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=emmeans
Lerner, R. M. (2006). Developmental Science, Developmental Systems, and Contemporary Theories of Human Development. En Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development, Vol. 1, 6th ed (pp. 1–17). John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Li, H., & Zhang, Q. (2022). Effects of Prosocial Video Games on Prosocial Thoughts and Prosocial Behaviors. Social Science Computer Review, 08944393211069599. https://doi.org/10.1177/08944393211069599
Llambí, C., & Pi, L. (2012). INDICE DE NIVEL SOCIOECONÓMICO (INSE) Revisión Anual, 2012 (pp. 1–13).
Loosli, S. V., Buschkuehl, M., Perrig, W. J., & Jaeggi, S. M. (2012). Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children. Child Neuropsychology : A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence, 18(1), 62–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2011.575772
Lüdecke D. (2021). sjstats: Statistical functions for regression models (Version 0.18.1). https://CRAN.Rproject.org/package=sjstats
Martinez, L., Gimenes, M., & Lambert, E. (2022). Entertainment Video Games for Academic Learning: A Systematic Review. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 07356331211053848. https://doi.org/10.1177/07356331211053848
Meteyard, L., & Davies, R. A. I. (2020). Best practice guidance for linear mixed-effects models in psychological science. Journal of Memory and Language, 112, 104092. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2020.104092
Mezzacappa, E., & Buckner, J. C. (2010). Working Memory Training for Children with Attention Problems or Hyperactivity: A School-Based Pilot Study. School Mental Health, 2(4), 202–208. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-010-9030-9
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 100, 49–100. https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1999.0734
Moreau, D. (2021). How Malleable Are Cognitive Abilities? A Critical Perspective on Popular Brief Interventions. American Psychologist, 77. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000872
Morgan, P. L., Li, H., Farkas, G., Cook, M., Pun, W. H., & Hillemeier, M. M. (2017). Executive functioning deficits increase kindergarten children’s risk for reading and mathematics difficulties in first grade. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 50, 23–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.01.004
Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., Pun, W. H., & Maczuga, S. (2019). Kindergarten children’s executive functions predict their second grade academic achievement and behavior. Child Development, 90(5), 1802–1816. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13095
Nesbitt, K. T., & Farran, D. C. (2021). Effects of Prekindergarten Curricula: Tools of the Mind as a Case Study. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 86(1), 7–119. https://doi.org/10.1111/mono.12425
Nin, V., Delgado, H., Muniz-Terrera, G., & Carboni, A. (2022). Partial agreement between task and BRIEF-P-based EF measures depends on school socioeconomic status. Developmental Science, 25(5), e13241.
Nin, V., Goldin, A. P., & Carboni, A. (2019). Mate marote: Video games to stimulate the development of cognitive processes. Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologías del Aprendizaje, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1109/RITA.2019.2909958
Nguyen, T., Grag, J., & Duncan. (2019). Kindergarten components of executive function and third grade achievement: A national study—ScienceDirect. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 46, 49–61.
Noble, K. G., Norman, M. F., & Farah, M. J. (2005). Neurocognitive correlates of socioeconomic status in kindergarten children. Developmental Science, 8(1), 74–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2005.00394.x
Noble, K. G., McCandliss, B. D., & Farah, M. J. (2007). Socioeconomic gradients predict individual differences in neurocognitive abilities. Developmental Science, 10(4), 464–480. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00600.x
Ørskov, P. T., Norup, A., Beatty, E. L., & Jaeggi, S. M. (2021). Exploring Individual Differences as Predictors of Performance Change During Dual-N-Back Training. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement: Towards the Integration of Theory and Practice, 5(4), 480–498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41465-021-00216-5
Paz, L., Goldin, A. P., Diuk, C., & Sigman, M. (2014). Parsing Heuristic and Forward Search in First-Graders’ Game-Play Behavior. Cognitive Science, 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12181
R Core Team. (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/
Reardon, S. F. (2013). The Widening Income Achievement Gap. Educational Leadership, 70(8), 10–16.
Rojas-Barahona, C. A., Förster, C. E., Moreno-Ríos, S., & McClelland, M. M. (2015). Improvement of Working Memory in Preschoolers and Its Impact on Early Literacy Skills: A Study in Deprived Communities of Rural and Urban Areas. Early Education and Development, 26(5–6), 871–892. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2015.1036346
Rosen, M. L., Hagen, M. P., Lurie, L. A., Miles, Z. E., Sheridan, M. A., Meltzoff, A. N., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2020). Cognitive Stimulation as a Mechanism Linking Socioeconomic Status With Executive Function: A Longitudinal Investigation. Child Development, 91(4), e762–e779. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13315
Sarsour, K., Sheridan, M., Jutte, D., Nuru-Jeter, A., Hinshaw, S., & Boyce, A. W. T. (2011). Family Socioeconomic Status and Child Executive Functions: The Roles of Language, Home Environment, and Single Parenthood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 120–132. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617710001335
Schmitt, S. A., McClelland, M. M., Tominey, S. L., & Acock, A. C. (2015). Strengthening school readiness for Head Start children: Evaluation of a self-regulation intervention. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30, 20–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.08.001
Scionti, N., Cavallero, M., Zogmaister, C., & Marzocchi, G. M. (2020). Is Cognitive Training Effective for Improving Executive Functions in Preschoolers? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2812. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02812
Segretin, M. S., Lipina, S. J., Hermida, M. J., Sheffield, T. D., Nelson, J. M., Espy, K. A., & Colombo, J. A. (2014). Predictors of cognitive enhancement after training in preschoolers from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(MAR). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00205
Shallice, T. (Ed.). (1982). Specific impairments of planning. Philosophical Transactions:Biological Sciences, 298, 199–209.
Sherman, E. M. S., & Brooks, B. L. (2010). Behavior rating inventory of executive function – preschool version (BRIEF-P): Test review and clinical guidelines for use. Child Neuropsychology, 16(5), 503–519. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297041003679344
Smid, C. R., Karbach, J., & Steinbeis, N. (2020). Toward a Science of Effective Cognitive Training. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 29(6), 531–537. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721420951599
Solomon, T., Plamondon, A., Hara, A. O., Finch, H., Goco, G., Chaban, P., Huggins, L., Ferguson, B., & Tannock, R. (2018).A Cluster Randomized-Controlled Trial of the Impact of the Tools of the Mind Curriculum on Self-Regulation in Canadian Preschoolers. 8(January), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02366
Takacs, Z. K., & Kassai, R. (2019). The efficacy of different interventions to foster children’s executive function skills: A series of meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 145(7), 653–697. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000195
Titz, C., & Karbach, J. (2014). Working memory and executive functions: Effects of training on academic achievement. Psychological Research Psychologische Forschung, 78(6), 852–868. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-013-0537-1
Tominey, S. L., & McClelland, M. M. (2011). Red Light, Purple Light: Findings From a Randomized Trial Using Circle Time Games to Improve Behavioral Self-Regulation in Preschool. Early Education and Development, 22(3), 489–519. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2011.574258
Torff, B., & Sessions, D. (2009). Teachers’ attitudes about professional development in high-SES and low-SES communities. Learning Inquiry, 3(2), 67–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11519-009-0040-1
Tullo, D., Guy, J., Faubert, J., & Bertone, A. (2018). Training with a three-dimensional multiple object-tracking (3D-MOT) paradigm improves attention in students with a neurodevelopmental condition: A randomized controlled trial. Developmental Science, 21(6), e12670. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12670
van der Donk, M. L. A., Hiemstra-Beernink, A.-C., Tjeenk-Kalff, A. C., van der Leij, A. V., & Lindauer, R. J. L. (2013). Interventions to improve executive functioning and working memory in school-aged children with AD(H)D: A randomised controlled trial and stepped-care approach. BMC Psychiatry, 13, 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-13-23
Vitiello, V. E., & Greenfield, D. B. (2017). Executive functions and approaches to learning in predicting school readiness. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 53, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2017.08.004
Vogel, S. C., Perry, R. E., Brandes-Aitken, A., Braren, S., & Blair, C. (2021). Deprivation and threat as developmental mediators in the relation between early life socioeconomic status and executive functioning outcomes in early childhood. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 47, 100907. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2020.100907
von Bastian, C. C., Belleville, S., Udale, R. C., Reinhartz, A., Essounni, M., & Strobach, T. (2022). Mechanisms underlying training-induced cognitive change. Nature Reviews Psychology, 1(1), 30–41. https://doi.org/10.1038/s44159-021-00001-3
Weissheimer, J., Fujii, R. C., & de Souza, J. G. M. (2020). The effects of cognitive training on executive functions and reading in typically developing children with varied socioeconomic status in Brazil. Ilha Do Desterro, 72, 85–100. https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2019v72n3p85
Wright, I., Waterman, M., Prescott, H., & Murdoch-Eaton, D. (2003). A new Stroop-like measure of inhibitory function development: Typical developmental trends. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 44(4), 561–575. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00145
Young, E. S., Griskevicius, V., Simpson, J. A., Waters, T. E. A., & Mittal, C. (2018). Can an unpredictable childhood environment enhance working memory? Testing the sensitized-specialization hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(6), 891–908. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000124
Young, E. S., Frankenhuis, W. E., DelPriore, D. J., & Ellis, B. J. (2022). Hidden talents in context: Cognitive performance with abstract versus ecological stimuli among adversity-exposed youth. Child Development, 93(5), 1493–1510. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13766
Zelazo, P. D. (2020). Executive Function and Psychopathology: A Neurodevelopmental Perspective. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 16(1), 431–454. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-072319-024242
Zhang, D.-W., & Sauce, B. (2023). Efficiency and capacity mechanisms can coexist in cognitive training. Nature Reviews Psychology, 2(2), 127–127. https://doi.org/10.1038/s44159-022-00146-9
We want to thank principals, teachers, school staff, parents and children that generously participated in our study. Andrea P Goldin is Fellow of the Learning Sciences Exchange, a joint project of New America and the Jacobs Foundation.
This work was supported by ANII grants FSPI_X_2015_1_108417, ININ_1_2017_1_137164, Fundación Dr. MANUEL SADOSKY CPr.003/2013 OAT12/12, and CSIC grant 191120–000676-15.
Approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the School of Psychology of the University of the Republic, Uruguay. The procedures used in this study adhere to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.
Consent to Participate
Written informed consent was obtained from the parents/legal guardians of all children. In addition, all children provided oral consent.
Consent for Publication
The authors declare no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Nin, V., Delgado, H., Goldin, A.P. et al. A Classroom-Embedded Video Game Intervention Improves Executive Functions in Kindergarteners. J Cogn Enhanc 7, 19–38 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41465-023-00262-1