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Computational Fluid Dynamics in Cardiovascular Engineering: A Comprehensive Review

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This study delves into the most recent advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and fluid–structure interaction (FSI) modeling applied to cardiovascular engineering. The application of FSI methods serves to overcome the constraints inherent in individual finite element analysis (FEA) and CFD techniques by simultaneously considering both fluidic and structural domains. The present review also explores One-Way and Two-Way FSI implementations across diverse cardiovascular systems, including scenarios involving aortic aneurysms and coronary arteries. A wide spectrum of cardiovascular applications is addressed, encompassing subjects such as hemodynamics in both healthy and diseased vessels, optimization of stent designs, evaluation of the effects of device interventions during stent deployment, modeling thrombosis and conducting risk assessments, analysis of heart valve dynamics, and assessment of cardiovascular devices such as ventricular assist devices. Furthermore, the study delves into assessing computational resource requirements, strategic implementation approaches, and potential directions for solving FSI-related issues within the context of cardiovascular systems. The integration of CFD modeling within cardiovascular medicine has profoundly transformed the landscape of biomedical device research and development. However, the challenges pertaining to regulatory aspects must be effectively addressed to ensure the widespread integration of CFD modeling within cardiovascular medicine. Successfully overcoming these challenges and adeptly addressing limitations will facilitate the seamless amalgamation of these pioneering techniques, ushering in a new era of precision medicine within cardiovascular healthcare.

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This work was supported by Sir J. C. Bose National Fellowship, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India (2020-2025).

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Correspondence to Kirti Chandra Sahu or Aniruddha B. Pandit.

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Dake, P.G., Mukherjee, J., Sahu, K.C. et al. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Cardiovascular Engineering: A Comprehensive Review. Trans Indian Natl. Acad. Eng. 9, 335–362 (2024).

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