Scintillation light from a liquid noble gas during a neutrino or dark matter experiment lies typically within the vacuum ultraviolet region and might be strongly absorbed by surrounding materials such as light guides or photomultipliers. Tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) is a fluorescent material, acts as a wavelength shifter, and can turn UV light into visible light at a peak wavelength of approximately 425 nm, enabling the light signals to be easily detected during physics studies. Compared with a traditional TPB coating method using vapor deposition, we propose an alternative technique applying a spin-coating procedure to facilitate the development of neutrino and dark matter detectors. This article introduces a method to fabricate a TPB film on an acrylic substrate by using a spin-coating method, reports the measurements of the sample film thickness and roughness, demonstrates the reemission spectrum, and quantifies the wavelength shifting efficiency.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
The measurement was conducted on November 1, 2019. The raw SEM image shows the wrong date owing to a software issue.
C. Benson, G. Orebi Gann, V. Gehman, Measurements of the intrinsic quantum efficiency and absorption length of tetraphenyl butadiene thin films in the vacuum ultraviolet regime. Eur. Phys. J. C 78(78), 329 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-5807-z
M. Kuzniak, B. Broerman, T. Pollmann et al., Polyethylene naphthalate film as a wavelength shifter in liquid argon detectors. Eur. Phys. J. C 79, 291 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-6810-8
D.M. Poehlmann, D. Barker, H. Chagani, et al., Characterization of gadolinium-loaded plastic scintillator for use as a neutron veto. arXiv:1812.11267 [physics.ins-det]
B. Fleming [MicroBooNE Collaboration], The MicroBooNE Technical Design Report https://doi.org/10.2172/1333130
B. Abi, R. Acciarri, M.A. Acero et al., [DUNE Collaboration], The DUNE far detector interim design report, Volume 2: single-phase module. arXiv:1807.10327 [physics.ins-det]
B. Broerman, M.G. Boulay, B. Cai et al., Application of the TPB wavelength shifter to the DEAP-3600 spherical acrylic vessel inner surface. JINST 12(04), P04017 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/12/04/P04017
P.-A. Amaudruz, M. Baldwin, M. Batygov et al., [DEAP-3600 Collaboration], Design and construction of the DEAP-3600 dark matter detector. Astropart. Phys. 108, 1 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2018.09.006
C.E. Aalseth, F. Acerbi, P. Agnes et al., DarkSide-20k: a 20 tonne two-phase LAr TPC for direct dark matter detection at LNGS. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 133, 131 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/i2018-11973-4
C. Amsler, A. Badertscher, V. Boccone et al., [ArDM Collaboration], First results on light readout from the 1-ton ArDM liquid argon detector for dark matter searches. JINST 5, P11003 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/5/11/P11003
X. Dai, E. Rollin, A. Bellerive, C. Hargrove, D. Sinclair, C. Mifflin, F. Zhang, Wavelength shifters for water Cherenkov detectors. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 589, 290 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2008.01.101
M. Sweany, A. Bernstein, S. Dazeley et al., Study of wavelength-shifting chemicals for use in large-scale water Cherenkov detectors. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 664, 245 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2011.10.064
S. Joosten, E. Kaczanowicz, M. Ungaro et al., Enhanced UV light detection using a p-terphenyl wavelength shifter. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 870, 110 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2017.06.050
M. Bonesini, T. Cervi, A. Falcone et al., An innovative technique for TPB deposition on convex window photomultiplier tubes. JINST 13(12), P12020 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/13/12/P12020
B. Howard, S. Mufson, D. Whittington et al., A novel use of light guides and wavelength shifting plates for the detection of scintillation photons in large liquid argon detectors. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 907, 9 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2018.06.050
R. Francini, R.M. Montereali, E. Nichelatti et al., VUV-Vis optical characterization of Tetraphenyl-butadiene films on glass and specular reflector substrates from room to liquid Argon temperature. JINST 8(8), P09006 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/8/09/P09006
A. Bacchi, A. Brillante, D. Crocco et al., Exploration of the polymorph landscape for 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene. CrstEngComm 16, 8205 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1039/C4CE01046A
A. Camposeo, M. Polo, P.D. Carro et al., Random lasing in an organic light-emitting crystal and its interplay with vertical cavity feedback. Laser Photoinics Rev. 8, 785–291 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1002/lpor.201400031
A. Girlando, S. Ianelli, I. Bilotti et al., Spectroscopic and structural characterization of two polymorphs of 1,1,4,4-Tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene. Cryst. Growth Des. 10, 2752–2758 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1021/cg100253k
G. Hull, N.P. Zaitseva, N.J. Cherepy et al., New organic crystals for pulse shape discrimination. IEEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 899 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2009.2015944
T. Pollmann, M. Boulay, M. Kuzniak, Scintillation of thin tetraphenyl butadiene films under alpha particle excitation. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 635, 127 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2011.01.045
Z. Moss, L. Bugel, G. Collin et al., Improved TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems. JINST 10, P08017 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/10/08/P08017
Y. Li, Q. Pan, J. Zhang et al., Preparation process of nanosized organic/inorganic thin films by sol-gel spin-coating method. J. Inorg. Mater. (2004). https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1000-324X(2004)05-1065-08
D. Meyerhofer, Characteristics of resist films produced by spinning. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3993 (1978). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.325357
H. Yue, L. Pan, D. Xu, Evaporation and flow in the dye coating process. J. Tsinghua Univ. (Sci&Tech) 44, 9 (2004). https://doi.org/10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2004.02.009. in Chinese
C.S. Chiu, C. Ignarra, L. Bugel et al., Environmental effects on TPB wavelength-shifting coatings. JINST 7, P07007 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/7/07/P07007
B.J.P. Jones, J.K. VanGemert, J.M. Conrad et al., Photodegradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene coatings for liquid argon detectors. JINST 8, P01013 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/8/01/P01013
A.G. Emslie, F.T. Bonner, L.G. Peck et al., Flow of a viscous liquid on a rotating disk. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 858 (1958). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1723300
Shen Zhen Long Xin Da Technology Electronic Co., Ltd, “Si Photodiode - LXD-66MQ Hand Book”, 2019. (in Chinese)
P. Rau, Attenuation length measurements for DEAP-3600 light guide acrylic , DEAP-STR-2013-006 Rev 1
C. Joram, Transmission curves of plexiglass (PMMA) and optical grease, PH-EP-Tech-Note-2009-003 26/10/2009
NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods, https://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/mpc/section5/mpc571.htm
This study was strongly supported by the Center for Fundamental Physics Laboratory in SYSU. We appreciate the help given by Prof. Han Shen and the technicians in his team. Many thanks to Prof. Yue Zheng and Prof. Wen-Peng Zhu for their help with the sample measurements using the SEM.
This study was supported in part by the Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (No. 2019A1515012216), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11505301) and the Innovation Training Program for bachelor students at the School of Physics in SYSU.
About this article
Cite this article
Yang, H., Xu, ZF., Tang, J. et al. Spin coating of TPB film on acrylic substrate and measurement of its wavelength shifting efficiency. NUCL SCI TECH 31, 28 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41365-020-0737-5