Cell Phone Use Latency in a Midwestern USA University Population
Cell phones are integral to the lives of contemporary university undergraduates in the USA. Observers documented cell phone use in public spaces within or immediately surrounding a large public university campus in the Midwestern USA. Individuals (N = 2013) were monitored from the time they entered a “waiting space,” either a line at a coffee shop or fast food restaurant, a bus stop, or an open area outside of a large lecture hall. Observers recorded whether individuals were using their cell phones when they arrived or began using their phones during the observation, recording the number of seconds between arrival and cell phone use. The majority of individuals (62%) were observed using their cell phones, 32% when they arrived, and 30% initiated use after arrival. The majority (55%) of the latter group initiated use within 10 s of arrival and 80% initiated use within 20 s of arrival. Women were more likely to use their phones than men and individuals engaged in a live conversation were less likely to use their cell phones. There was a weak trend for longer latencies in cell phone use for those in live conversations, although it did not reach statistical significance.
KeywordsCell phones Cell phone addiction Observational research University Cell phone dependence Cell phone use latency Undergraduates
We thank the University of Michigan’s Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program for partial funding of this project.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This project was reviewed prior to data collection by the University of Michigan’s Institutional Review Board for Health Sciences and Behavioral Sciences. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Asselbergs, J., Ruwaard, J., Ejdys, M., Schrader, N., Sijbrandij, M., & Riper, H. (2016). Mobile phone-based unobtrusive ecological momentary assessment of day-to-day mood: an explorative study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18, e72. doi: 10.2196/jmir.5505.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Cheever, N. A., Rosen, L. D., Carrier, L. M., & Chavez, A. (2014). Out of sight is not out of mind: the impact of restricting wireless mobile device use on anxiety levels among low, moderate and high users. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 290–297. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.05.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Finkel, J. A., & Kruger, D. J. (2012). Is cell phone use socially contagious? Human Ethology Bulletin, 27, 15–17.Google Scholar
- Geertz, C. (1973). Thick description: toward an interpretive theory of culture. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Pew Research Center. (2015, April 01). The Smartphone Difference: US smartphone use in 2015. Available at: http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/01/us-smartphone-use-in-2015/
- Rosen, L. D., Whaling, K., Rab, S. A., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2013a). Is Facebook creating “iDisorders”? The link between clinical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and technology use, attitudes and anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1243–1254. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.11.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar