Self-Directed Video Prompting and Least-to-Most Prompting: Examining Ways of Increasing Vocational Skill Acquisition Among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of point-of-view video prompting (VP) as a self-prompting strategy with a least-to-most prompting (LMP) system on the rapidity of skill acquisition of two students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and two students with intellectual disability (ID) when working on school-based vocational tasks.

Methods

We used multiple probes across students design of single-case experimental methodology to examine whether or not causal relation existed between the intervention and students’ vocational skill acquisition and follow-up performance. Target tasks involved both process and basic functional mathematics steps that required students to pay attention to the process of task completion rather than the functional step itself.

Results

All students showed immediate and considerable improvement in skill acquisition between baseline and intervention. Furthermore, all students completed the tasks with an average of over 90% accuracy once the LMP was removed. The four students in this study required two to six intervention trials to reach 100% accuracy without the use of LMP, with a mean of four trials. Tau-U effect size showed a strong effect of the intervention on skill acquisition and follow-up performance.

Conclusions

VP and LMP as a combined intervention can be effective in teaching vocational tasks that involve process steps to students with both ASD and ID. VP can be a useful support for students with ASD and ID in school, community, and employment settings to decrease reliance on adult prompting and increase independence.

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Fig. 1

Change history

  • 09 November 2019

    A correction should be made to the procedural reliability and interobserver agreement (IOA) sub-section within the Method section of the paper. In the Method section of the paper, the procedures for reliability and IOA were stated, however, the results were not. The following were the results: Procedural reliability per student for each phase, i.e., baseline, intervention, and follow-up, was 100%. Similarly, IOA for each student per phase was 100%.

  • 09 November 2019

    A correction should be made to the procedural reliability and interobserver agreement (IOA) sub-section within the Method section of the paper. In the Method section of the paper, the procedures for reliability and IOA were stated, however, the results were not. The following were the results: Procedural reliability per student for each phase, i.e., baseline, intervention, and follow-up, was 100%. Similarly, IOA for each student per phase was 100%.

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GY designed and implemented the study, assisted with the data analyses, and wrote the paper. LL collaborated with the design and implementation of the study. BLB collaborated with the data analyses and writing of the paper. NH collaborated with the implementation of the study. LL collaborated with the implementation of the study.

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Correspondence to Gulnoza Yakubova.

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Yakubova, G., Leibowitz, L., Baer, B.L. et al. Self-Directed Video Prompting and Least-to-Most Prompting: Examining Ways of Increasing Vocational Skill Acquisition Among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability. Adv Neurodev Disord 3, 246–258 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41252-019-0097-5

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Keywords

  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Intellectual disability
  • Video prompting
  • System of least prompts
  • Vocational skills