Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 45–53 | Cite as

A Comparison of Secondary Target Location in Instructive Feedback Procedures

  • Christopher A. TullisEmail author
  • Ashley R. Gibbs
  • Madeline Butzer
  • Sarah G. Hansen


Instructive feedback (IF) is an effective strategy for increasing the efficiency of targeted instruction. Although effective, the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of secondary targets via IF are unknown. In the current investigation, two forms of IF were compared to determine if indiscriminable contingencies were responsible, in part, for the acquisition of secondary targets during IF procedures. During teaching, IF stimuli were presented either before or after the praise statement for mastered tacts to two learners with autism spectrum disorders. Across both participants, IF before the praise statement resulted in faster acquisition of secondary targets that were maintained for 16–18 weeks post intervention. These results extend the IF literature by providing evidence that acquisition of secondary targets via IF may at least partially attributed to the occurrence of indiscriminable contingencies.


Instructive feedback Autism spectrum disorder Indiscriminable contingencies 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained for all individuals in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher A. Tullis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ashley R. Gibbs
    • 1
    • 2
  • Madeline Butzer
    • 1
  • Sarah G. Hansen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Learning SciencesGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Kiddos’ ClubhouseAlpharettaUSA

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