Skip to main content


Log in

Effect of Grafted and Dyed Polyamide Nets on the Adhesion of Three Marine Bacterial Strains

  • Published:
Thalassas: An International Journal of Marine Sciences Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Marine biofouling seriously affects the field of aquaculture. On the one hand, it causes structural fatigue of nets and on the other hand, it has harmful consequences on the health of farmed species. The aims of this study were to develop antibacterial nets using methacrylic acid and dyes. At first, polyamide 6.6 nets were grafted with methacrylic acid following two methods and dyed with 3 specific dyes. Then, modified nets were evaluated with SEM and XPS to obtain morphological and chemical information. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of nets was assessed against three bacterial strains at a laboratory scale and at a real scale by calculating the Colonies Forming Units (CFU) / gram. All treated nets showed an inhibition level higher than 65%. Besides, nets dyed with direct dye Tubantin and grafted with MA after plasma activation, showed an inhibition level higher than 95%. Also, nets modified with MA after plasma and reactive dye Bezaktiv S showed the best antifouling activity against three bacteria strains.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

Similar content being viewed by others

Data Availability

Not applicable.


  • Abedi D, Mortazavi SM, Mehrizi MK, Feiz M (2008) Antimicrobial properties of acrylic fabrics dyed with direct dye and a copper salt. Text Res J 78(4):311–319

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amara I, Miled W, Ben Slama R, Chevallier P, Mantovani D, Ladhari N (2019) Surface modifications by plasma treatment, chemical grafting and over dyeing of polyamide nets to improve the antifouling performance in the aquaculture field. Dyes Pigm 166:107–113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amara I, Miled W, Slama RB, Ladhari N (2018) Antifouling processes and toxicity effects of antifouling paints on marine environment. A review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 57:115–130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Angelidis MO, Catsiki V (2002) Metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the marine environment: methodological questions. CIESM Workshop Monographs

  • Ashraf PM, Sasikala K, Thomas SN, Edwin L (2020) Biofouling resistant polyethylene cage aquaculture nettings: A new approach using polyaniline and nano copper oxide. Arab J Chem 13(1):875–882

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baer DR, Engelhard MH (2010) XPS analysis of nanostructured materials and biological surfaces. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 178:415–432

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bannister J, Sievers M, Bush F, Bloecher N (2019) Biofouling in marine aquaculture: a review of recent research and developments. Biofouling 35(6):631–648

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bloecher N, Powell M, Hytterød S, Gjessing M, Wiik-Nielsen J, Mohammad SN, Johansen J, Hansen H, Floerl O, Gjevre A-G (2018) Effects of cnidarian biofouling on salmon gill health and development of amoebic gill disease. PloS one 13(7)

  • Brian-Jaisson F (2014) Identification et caractérisation des exopolymères de biofilms de bactéries marines. Toulon

  • Burkinshaw SM, Salihu G (2019) The role of auxiliaries in the immersion dyeing of textile fibres part 2: Analysis of conventional models that describe the manner by which inorganic electrolytes promote direct dye uptake on cellulosic fibres. Dyes Pigm 161:531–545

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Casimiro J (2011) Modifications de matériaux polymères pour des visées antibactériennes, Université Paris Sud-Paris XI

  • Castritsi-Catharios J, Neofitou N, Vorloou A (2015) Comparison of heavy metal concentrations in fish samples from three fish farms (Eastern Mediterranean) utilizing antifouling paints. Toxicol Environ Chem 97(1):116–123

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chien L-C, Hung T-C, Choang K-Y, Yeh C-Y, Meng P-J, Shieh M-J, Han B-C (2002) Daily intake of TBT, Cu, Zn, Cd and As for fishermen in Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 285(1–3):177–185

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Costello MJ, Grant A, Davies IM, Cecchini S, Papoutsoglou S, Quigley D, Saroglia M (2001) The control of chemicals used in aquaculture in Europe. J Appl Ichthyol 17(4):173–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dafforn KA, Lewis JA, Johnston EL (2011) Antifouling strategies: history and regulation, ecological impacts and mitigation. Mar Pollut Bull 62(3):453–465

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • De Nys R, Guenther J (2009) The impact and control of biofouling in marine finfish aquaculture. Advances in marine antifouling coatings and technologies, Elsevier, pp 177–221

  • Gorenšek M, Gorjanc M, Kovac J (2010) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterisation of chemical changes on PET knitted goods surface after corona treatment and ageing. Tekstilec 53(4–6):103–112

    Google Scholar 

  • Greim H, Ahlers J, Bias R, Broecker B, Hollander H, Gelbke H-P, Jacobi S, Klimisch H-J, Mangelsdorf I, Mayr W (1995) Assessment of structurally related chemicals: toxicity and ecotoxicity of acrylic acid and acrylic acid alkyl esters (acrylates), methacrylic acid and methacrylic acid alkyl esters (methacrylates). Chemosphere 31(2):2637–2659

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guardiola FA, Cuesta A, Meseguer J, Esteban MA (2012) Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture. Int J Mol Sci 13(2):1541–1560

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Labay C, Canal JM, Canal C (2012) Relevance of surface modification of polyamide 6.6 fibers by air plasma treatment on the release of caffeine. Plasma Processes Polym 9(2):165–173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lane A, Willemsen P (2004) Collaborative effort looks into biofouling. Fish Farming Int 44:34–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Lehaitre M, Delauney L, Compère C (2008) Biofouling and underwater measurements. Real-time observation systems for ecosystem dynamics and harmful algal blooms: Theory, instrumentation and modelling. Oceanographic Methodology Series. UNESCO, Paris, pp 463–493

  • Lemée F (2015) Composés polyioniques contraints bioactifs libres et supportés: accès à de nouveaux matériaux antibactériens, Université de Lorraine

  • Leroy C (2006) Lutte contre les salissures marines: approche par procédés enzymatiques, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Toulouse

  • Maan AM, Hofman AH, de Vos WM, Kamperman M (2020) Recent developments and practical feasibility of polymer-based antifouling coatings. Adv Funct Mater 30(32):2000936

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Makhlouf C (2010) Modifications chimiques des supports à usage textile, Monastir University

  • Oliveira FR, Zille A, Souto AP (2014) Dyeing mechanism and optimization of polyamide 6,6 functionalized with double barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in air. Appl Surf Sci 293:177–186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Piccolotti F, Lovatelli A (2012) Assemblage et installation de cages hexagonales en bois pour l’élevage de poissons: Un manuel technique. FAO Fish Aquaculture Tech Pap 576:I

    Google Scholar 

  • Sadan NE, Akash PS, PG SK (2022) Biofouling impacts and toxicity of Antifouling agents on marine environment: a qualitative study. Sustain Agri Food Environ Res 10(1)

  • Trepos R, Cervin G, Pile C, Pavia H, Hellio C, Svenson J (2015) Evaluation of cationic micropeptides derived from the innate immune system as inhibitors of marine biofouling. Biofouling 31(4):393–403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Willemsen P (2005) Biofouling in European aquaculture: is there an easy solution. Eur Aquaculture Soc Special Publ 35:82–87

    Google Scholar 

  • Yebra DM, Kiil S, Dam-Johansen K (2004) Antifouling technology—past, present and future steps towards efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling coatings. Prog Org Coat 50(2):75–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang F, Zhang Z, Zhu X, Kang E-T, Neoh K-G (2008) Silk-functionalized titanium surfaces for enhancing osteoblast functions and reducing bacterial adhesion. Biomaterials 29(36):4751–4759

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We would like to thank Mr. Yannick Toueixe, Mr. Christophe Lamberte and Mr. Valentin Foulone for explaining the bacteriological part and for giving their support.


This research was partially funded by the Laboratory of Textile Engineering LGTex of ISET Ksar Hellal in Tunisia, Quebec University Hospital Research Center (CHU) and the Laboratory of Sciences of Marine Environment (LEMAR, Brest, France).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



I. Amara conceived and planned the biological experiments with the help of Y. Toueix, M. Fauchon, C. Lambert and V. Foulon. I. Amara conceived and planned the other experiments with the help of W. Miled, R. BenSlama and N. Ladhari. I. Amara carried out the experiments. I. Amara wrote this manuscript which was revised by W. Miled and N. Ladhari. I. Amara, W. Miled, N. Ladhari, D. Mantovani and C. Hellio investigated and supervised the findings of this work. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Intissar Amara.

Ethics declarations

Ethical Approval and Consent to Participate

Not applicable.

Human and Animal Ethics

Not applicable.

Consent for Publication

All authors are aware of this publication and agree to publish and share the research’ results.

Competing Interests

Not applicable.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 1466 KB)

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Amara, I., Miled, W., Slama, R.B. et al. Effect of Grafted and Dyed Polyamide Nets on the Adhesion of Three Marine Bacterial Strains. Thalassas 39, 1071–1083 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: