Development of Biofouling Communities on Nylon Net Panels Submerged in the Central Red Sea: Effects of Season and Depth

  • Adnan J. Salama
  • Sathianeson Satheesh
  • Ahmed A. Balqadi
Article

Abstract

In this study, seasonal and depth-wise changes in biofouling community development were analyzed using nylon net panels in Jeddah coastal waters of the Red Sea. Nylon net (small and large mesh size) panels were prepared and submerged in the coastal waters during summer and autumn seasons. The biofouling community settled on the net panels in this study includes groups such as copepods, polychaetes, amphipods, isopods, bivalves, gastropods, ascidians, and macroalgae. Biofouling growth is more abundant on small mesh size net panels than larger mesh size net panels. Most of the fouling groups showed higher abundance at 2 m depth. In general, the results of the present study show that the factors such as season and depth influence the recruitment of fouling communities on net panels.

Keywords

Artificial substratum Aquaculture Benthic assemblage Biofouling organisms Macroalgae Mussels Red Sea 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University (grant no. G -323-150-1436). The authors, therefore, acknowledge with thanks DSR for technical and financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest

References

  1. Abdelsalam KM, Abdelwahab MM (2012) Effects of depth and orientation on marine fouling assemblages in the coastal waters of Abu Qir Harbor, Egypt. JKAU: Mar Sci 3:3–24Google Scholar
  2. Al-Farawati R (2010) Environmental conditions of the coastal waters of southern Corinche, Jeddah, Eastern Red Sea: physico-chemical approach. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 4:3324–3337Google Scholar
  3. Ba-Akdah MA, Satheesh S, Al-Sofyani AA (2016) Habitat preference and seasonal variability of epifaunal assemblages associated with macroalgal beds on the central Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 96:1457–1467. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315415001678 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baars MA, Schalk PH, Veldhuis MJW (1998) Seasonal fluctuations in plankton biomass and productivity in the ecosystems of the Somali Current, Gulf of Aden, and southern Red Sea. In: Sherman et al (eds) Large marine ecosystems of the Indian ocean: assessment, sustainability, and management. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 143–174Google Scholar
  5. Bailey-Brock JH (1989) Fouling community development on an artificial reef in Hawaiian waters. Bull Mar Sci 44:580–591Google Scholar
  6. Bakus G, Targett N, Schulte B (1986) Chemical ecology of marine organisms: an overview. J Chem Ecol 12:951–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertness MD, Gaines SD, Stephens EG, Yund PO (1992) Components of recruitment in populations of the acorn barnacles Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 156:199–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beveridge MCM (1987) Cage aquaculture. Fishing News Books, Farhnam 352 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. Biton E, Gildor H, Trommer G, Siccha M, Kucera M, van der Meer MTJ, Schouten S (2010) Sensitivity of Red Sea circulation to monsoonal variability during the Holocene: an integrated data and modeling study. Paleoceanography 25:PA4209. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009PA001876 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bloecher N, Olsen Y, Guenther J (2013) Variability of biofouling communities on fish cage nets: a 1 year field study at a Norwegian salmon farm. Aquaculture 413-417:302–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braithwaite RA, McEvoy LA (2005) Marine biofouling on fish farms and its remediation. Adv Mar Biol. London, Academic Press Ltd. 47: 215–225Google Scholar
  12. Brankevich G, Bastida R, Lemmi C (1988) A comparative study of biofouling settlements in different sections of Necochea power plant (Queen Port, Argentina). Biofouling 1:113–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown KM, Swearingen DC (1998) Effective of seasonality, length of immersion, locality and predation on an intertidal fouling assemblage in the northern Gulf of Mexico. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 225:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Camps M, Briand JF, Guentas-Dombrowsky L, Culioli G, Bazire A, Blache Y (2011) Antifouling activity of commercial biocides vs. natural and natural-derived products assessed by marine bacteria adhesion bioassay. Mar Pollut Bull 62:1032–1040. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.02.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. de Nys R, Guenther J (2009) The battle against marine biofouling: a historical review. In: Hellio C, Yebra DMY (eds) Advances in marine antifouling coatings and technologies. Woodshead Publishing, Cambridge, pp 177–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dobretsov S, Al-Wahaibi ASM, Lai D, Al-Sabahi J, Claereboud M, Proksch P, Soussi B (2015) Inhibition of bacterial fouling by soft coral natural products. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 98:53–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2014.10.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Edwards AJ, Head SM (1987) Key environments: Red Sea. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  18. Fredriksson D, Palcynski M, Swift M, Irish J (2003) Fluid dynamic drag of a central spar fish cage. In: Bridger C, Costa-Pierce B (eds) Open ocean aquaculture. From research to commercial reality. The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, pp 151–168Google Scholar
  19. Greene JK, Grizzle RE (2007) Successional development of fouling communities on open ocean aquaculture fish cages in the western Gulf of Maine, USA. Aquaculture 262:289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hart S (2005) Report on marine biofouling consequences seasonally, spatially and with depth, exploration and production: the oil and gas review. 2:1–2Google Scholar
  21. Herbert RJ, Hawkins SJ (2006) Effect of rock type on the recruitment and early mortality of the barnacle Chthamalus montagui. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 334:96–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hincapié-Cárdenas C (2007) Macrobiofouling on open-ocean submerged aquaculture cages in Puerto Rico, Master of Science in Marine Sciences dissertation, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus. ProQuest Information and Learning CompanyGoogle Scholar
  23. Hodson SL, Lewis TE, Burke CM (1997) Biofouling of fish-cage netting: efficacy and problems of in situ cleaning. Aquaculture 152:77–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hodson SL, Burk CM, Bissett AP (2000) Biofouling of fish-cage netting: the efficacy of a silicone coating and the effect of netting colour. Aquaculture 184:277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones MC, Cheung WWL (2015) Multi-model ensemble projections of climate change effects on global marine biodiversity. ICES J Mar Sci 72:741–752. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsu172 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lader P, Dempster T, Fredheim A, Jensen O (2008) Current induced net deformations in full-scale cages for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquac Eng 38:52–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lutz-Collins V, Ramsay A, Quijón PA, Davidson J (2009) Invasive tunicates fouling mussel lines: evidence of their impact on native tunicates and other epifaunal invertebrates. Aquat Invasions 4:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Masi BP, Coutinho R, Zalmon I (2015) Successional trajectory of the fouling community on a tropical upwelling ecosystem in southeast Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Braz J Oceanogr 63:161–168. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-87592015093806302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miller RJ, Etter RJ (2008) Shading facilitates sessile invertebrate dominance in the rocky subtidal Gulf of Maine. Ecology 89:452–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moring JR, Moring KA (1975) Succession of net biofouling material and its role in the diet of pen-cultured Chinook salmon. Prog Fish Cult 37:27–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pardo LM, Palma AT, Prieto CC, Sepulveda P, Valdivia I, Ojeda FP (2007) Processes regulating early post-settlement habitat use in a subtidal assemblage of brachyuran decapods. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 344:10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Raitsos DE, PradhanY BRJW, Stenchikov G, Hoteit I (2013) Remote sensing the phytoplankton seasonal succession of the Red Sea. PLoS One 8(6):e64909. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064909 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rajagopal S, Nair KVK, Van der Velde G, Jenner HA (1997) Seasonal settlement and succession of fouling communities in Kalpakkam, east coast of India. Neth J Aquat Ecol 30:309–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rius M, Branch GM, Griffiths CL, Turon X (2010) Larval settlement behaviour in six gregarious ascidians in relation to adult distribution. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 418:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rius M, Heasman KG, McQuaid CD (2011) Long-term coexistence of non-indigenous species in aquaculture facilities. Mar Pollut Bull 62:2395–2403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rule MJ, Smith SDA (2007) Depth-associated patterns in the development of benthic assemblages on artificial substrata deployed on shallow, subtropical reefs. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 345:38–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Salama AJ, Satheesh S, Balqadi AA, Kitto MR (2016) Identifying suitable fin fish cage farming sites in the eastern Red Sea Coast, Saudi Arabia. Thalassas 32:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41208-015-0001-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sasikumar N, Rajagopal S, Nair KVK (1989) Seasonal and vertical distribution of macrofoulants in Kalpakkam coastal waters. Indian J Mar Sci 11:132–137Google Scholar
  39. Satheesh S, Wesley SG (2008) Seasonal variability of fouling community recruitment in Kudankulam coastal waters, East coast India. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 79:518–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Satheesh S, Wesley SG (2009) Vertical distribution of macro-fouling community in Kudankulam coastal Waters, Gulf of Mannar (east coast of India). Mar Biodivers Rec 2:1–15. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755267208000055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Satheesh S, Wesley SG (2010) Biofilm development on acrylic coupons during the initial 24 hour period of submersion in a tropical coastal environment. Oceanol Hydrobiol Stud 39:28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sawall Y, Richter C, Ramette A (2012) Effects of eutrophication, seasonality and macrofouling on the diversity of bacterial biofilms in equatorial coral reefs. PLoS One 7(7):e39951. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039951 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schultz MP (2007) Effects of coating roughness and biofouling on ship resistance and powering. Biofouling 23:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shaikh EA, Roff JC, Dowidar NM (1986) Phytoplankton ecology and production in the Red Sea off Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Mar Biol 92:405–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Swift M, Fredriksson D, Unrein A, Fullerton B, Patursson O, Baldwin K (2006) Drag force acting on bio-fouled net panels. Aquac Eng 35:292–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Taylor GT, Zheng D, Lee M, Troy PJ, Gyananath G, Sharma SK (1997) Influence of surface properties on accumulation of conditioning films and marine bacteria on substrata exposed to oligotrophic waters. Biofouling 11:31–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Trommer G, Siccha M, Rohling EJ, Grant K, van der Meer MTJ, Schouten S, Hemleben C, Kucera M (2010) Millennial-scale variability in Red Sea circulation in response to Holocene insolation forcing. Paleoceanography 25:PA3203. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009PA001826 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tseng W, Yuen K (1978) Studies of fouling organisms on mariculture nets and cages in Hong Kong. Proceedings of Aquatic Environment in Pacific Region, pp 151–159Google Scholar
  49. Venugopalan VK, Paulpandian AL (1989) Methods in hydrobiology. CAS in Marine Biology. Annamalai University Publications, India, 134 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. Venugopalan VP, Wagh AB (1990) Biofouling of an offshore oil plate form: faunal composition and biomass. Indian J Mar Sci 19:53–56Google Scholar
  51. Wesley SG, Satheesh S (2009) Temporal variability of nutrient concentration in marine biofilm developed on acrylic panels. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 379:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Young CM (1988) Larval predation by barnacles: effects of patch colonization in a shallow Subtidal community. Ecology 69:624–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine SciencesKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations