Being a vet: the veterinary profession in social science research

Abstract

This article presents a review of the social science literature on the veterinary profession. It highlights the current debates on the profession. The texts discussed in this review mainly relate to the fields of history, sociology, political sciences and social geography, although multidisciplinary or management studies publications are sometimes referred to. This article analyses four major structuring dynamics: the sociodemographic evolutions that are currently taking place within the profession (1); the transformation of practices and knowledge in relation, on the one hand, to the increase in the number of pets (2) and, on the other hand, to the evolution of farming systems (3); and the ways public authorities govern veterinary public health (4).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. 1.

    An essential professionalisation issue, the question of speciality, remains poorly defined in veterinary medicine. Lowe (2009, p. 57) identifies at least three ways of perceiving it: “a set of specialisms that take a whole animal approach to an individual or group of species (cattle, pigs, poultry, sheep, goats, deer and fish); a series of mainly clinically based specialisms, based around either a body system (e.g. ophthalmology) or technique (e.g. anaesthesia), which may be applicable to different species; and a range of specialist occupational divisions (such as government veterinarians and industrial veterinarians)”. In this article, our use of the notion of “specialty” refers to Lowe’s first or third definition, i.e. either specialisation by animal species (farm animal medicine vs. small animal medicine) or specialisation by sector of employment (self-employed, industry, government). We specify which definition each time in the text.

  2. 2.

    Philip Lowe was a professor at Newcastle University. His research focused mainly on rural development.

  3. 3.

    Certain rare exceptions aside, two types of literature were left aside. Firstly, works by veterinary researchers using qualitative approaches (published in veterinary science journals): while they offer aspects of knowledge concerning their specific subjects (e.g. professional demographics or use of medicines), they are rarely embedded in an epistemology of social sciences that allows them to contribute towards an analysis of the socio-economic or political issues affecting their profession. This said, veterinary science journals are becoming more and more open to work by social science researchers, and the majority of these articles are used here. Secondly, works from the field of animal studies, especially those dealing with ethics and animal welfare: as an interdisciplinary space this field of course welcomes social science research, but it focuses mainly on human-animal relations and the question of animal agency. The issue of veterinarians’ professional challenges remains secondary.

  4. 4.

    Our overview includes 105 references, 83 of which have been published since 2009. For a larger database of about 200 references in social sciences of the veterinary profession, you can check this Zotero repository: https://www.zotero.org/groups/2422200/vets/library

  5. 5.

    Unfortunately this fascinating article has no equivalent in France or in other European countries, where little is known about the emergence of canine practice.

  6. 6.

    It should be noted that this question of the emotional work relating to the death of animals has almost never been studied among farm animal vets, despite the fact that it constitutes a large part of their work, be it with regard to cull or slaughter or to euthanasia following medical examination. Except Law (2010) and Gaignard and Charon (2005) who highlight the concerns expressed by veterinarians in relation to the massive slaughter that took place during the BSE and foot-and-mouth crises, and Wilkie (2010) who examines the “disanthropomorphisation” work that vets (and farmers) have to put into effect when they lead animals to the slaughter.

  7. 7.

    The manner of presenting this issue in terms of “veterinary deserts” is specific to France, where it finds resonance with what is now a well-established public problem, which of the “medical desert”, i.e. zones where in relation to the requirements of the local population, the density of health professionals and of doctors in particular, is lower than elsewhere in the country.

  8. 8.

    Enticott (2012a) also studied variations within the professional veterinary group itself, particularly in relation to gender in the detection of bovine tuberculosis. The data show that women under-declare the disease, though it is difficult to explain this observation. His work puts forward various hypotheses in this regard.

  9. 9.

    FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations

  10. 10.

    OIE: World Organisation for Animal Health

  11. 11.

    WHO: World Health Organisation

  12. 12.

    Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety

References

  1. Adam, K., Henry, C., Rushton, J., & Baillie, S. (2014). Challenges facing rural farm animal veterinary enterprises in the UK. In C. Henry, G. Mcelwee (Eds.), Exploring rural enterprise: New perspectives on research, policy & practice. Bingley: Emerald Group publishing limited.

  2. Adam, C., Ducrot, C., Paul, M., & Fortané, N. (2017). Autonomy under contract: the case of traditional free-range poultry farmers. Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies, 98(1), 55–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Alam, T. (2009). La Vache Folle et les vétérinaires. Récit d’une victoire inattendue et paradoxale sur le terrain de la sécurité sanitaire des aliments. Review of Agricultural & Environmental Studies - Revue d’Etudes En Agriculture et Environnement, 90(4), 373–398.

    Google Scholar 

  4. American Veterinary Medical Association. (2016). Report on the market for veterinarians. Washington: AVMA.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Atwood-Harvey, D. (2005). Death or declaw: dealing with moral ambiguity in a veterinary hospital. Society and Animals, 13(4), 315–342.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Berdah, D. (2008). Suivre la norme sanitaire ou ‘périr’ : la loi de 1954 sur la prophylaxie collective de la tuberculose bovine. In C. Bonneuil, G. Denis, & J.-L. Mayaud (Eds.), Sciences, chercheurs et agriculture (pp. 203–222). Paris-Versailles: L’Harmattan-Quae.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Berdah, D. (2010). La vaccination des bovidés contre la tuberculose en France, 1921–1963 : entre modèle épistémique et alternative à l’abattage. Review of Agricultural & Environmental Studies - Revue d’Etudes En Agriculture et Environnement, 91(4), 393–415.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Berdah, D. (2012). Entre scientifisation et travail de frontières : les transformations des savoirs vétérinaires en France, XVIIIe-XIXe siècles. Revue d’histoire Moderne et Contemporaine, 59(4), 51–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Berdah, D. (2018). Abattre ou vacciner : La France et le Royaume-Uni en lutte contre la tuberculose et la fièvre aphteuse. Paris: Éditions de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Blass, E. (2010). The failure of professional self-regulation: the example of the UK veterinary profession. Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, 5(4).

  11. Bonnaud, L., & Coppalle, J. (2008). La production de la sécurité sanitaire au quotidien : l’inspection des services vétérinaires en abattoir. Sociologie Du Travail, 50(1), 15–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bonnaud, L., & Coppalle, J. (2009). Les inspecteurs vétérinaires face aux normes privées. Revue d’études En Agriculture et Environnement, 90(4), 399–422.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bonnaud, L., & Coppalle, J. (2013). Co-regulation in practices: the hygiene package in French slaughterhouses. Sociologia Ruralis, 53(4), 479–495.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bonnaud, L., & Fortané, N. (2016). Au-delà des crises de santé animale Pour une sociologie de l’action publique vétérinaire. Gouvernement et Action Publique, 3(3), 131–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bonnaud, L., & Fortané, N. (2018). L’État sanitaire de la profession vétérinaire. Action publique et régulation de l’activité professionnelle. Sociologie, 9(3), 253–268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Brown, K., & Gilfoyle, D. (2010). Healing the herds: disease, livestock economies, and the globalization of veterinary medicine. Athens: Ohio University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  17. Cassidy, A. (2018). Humans, other animals & ‘one health’ in the early twenty-first century. In A. Woods, M. Bresalier, A. Cassidy, R. Mason Dentinger (Eds.), Animals and the shaping of modern medicine: One health and its histories (pp. 193–236) Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

  18. Cassidy, A. (2019). Vermin, victims and disease: British debates over bovine tuberculosis and badgers. Cham: Palgrave McMillan.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  19. Cassier, M. (2008). Producing, controlling, & stabilizing Pasteur’s Anthrax vaccine: Creating a new industry & a health market. Science in Context, 21(2), 253–278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Charles, H. (2004). Impact de la féminisation sur le statut social du vétérinaire, Thèse vétérinaire, Faculté de médecine de Créteil.

  21. Chien, Y. (2013). How did international agencies perceive the avian influenza problem? The adoption & manufacture of the ‘one world, one health’ framework. Sociology of Health & Illness, 35(2), 213–226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Clarke, C., & Knights, D. (2019). Who’s a good boy then? Anthropocentric masculinities in veterinary practice. Gender, Work and Organization, 26(3), 267–287.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Corr, S., Palmer, C., & Sandøe, P. (2015). Companion animals and the future. In P. Sandøe, S. Corr, & C. Palmer (Eds.), Companion animal ethics (pp. 287–304). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Dangy, L. (2018). S’affronter pour réguler : le conflit transatlantique sur le bœuf aux hormones dans l’organisation internationale du commerce agroalimentaire. Thèse pour le doctorat de science politique, Sciences Po Lyon.

  25. Elvbakken, K. (2017). Veterinarians & Public Health: food control in the professionalization of veterinarians. Professions & Professionalism, 7(2), 1–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Enticott, G. (2012a). Regulating animal health, gender & quality control: a study of veterinary surgeons in Great Britain. Journal of Rural Studies, 28(4), 559–567.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Enticott, G. (2012b). The local universality of veterinary expertise & the geography of animal disease. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 37(1), 75–88.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Enticott, G. (2014). Relational distance, neoliberalism & the regulation of animal health. Geoforum, 52, 42–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Enticott, G. (2017). Navigating veterinary borderlands: ‘heiferlumps’, epidemiological boundaries and the control of animal disease in New Zealand. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 42, 153–165.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Enticott, G. (2018). International migration by rural professionals: professional subjectivity, disease ecology & veterinary migration from the United Kingdom to New Zealand. Journal of Rural Studies, 59, 118–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Enticott, G. (2019). Mobile work, veterinary subjectivity & Brexit: veterinary surgeons’ migration to the UK. Sociologia Ruralis, 59(4), 718–738.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Enticott, G., & Ward, K. (2019). Mapping careful epidemiology: spatialities, materialities and subjectivities in the management of animal disease. Geographical Journal, Online first. https://doi.org/10.1111/geoj.12341.

  33. Enticott, G., & Wilkinson, K. (2013). Biosecurity: whose knowledge counts? In A. Dobson, K. Barker, & S. Taylor (Eds.), Biosecurity: The socio-politics of Invasive Species & Infectious Diseases (pp. 91–104). Abingdon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Enticott, G., Donaldson, A., Lowe, P., Power, M., Proctor, A., & Wilkinson, K. (2011). The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, 366(1573), 1955–1965.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Federation of Veterinarians of Europe. (2015). FVE survey of the veterinary profession in Europe. FVE: Bruxelles.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Figuié, M. (2014). Towards a global governance of risks: international health organisations & the surveillance of emerging infectious diseases. Journal of Risk Research, 17(4), 469–483.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Figuié, M., & Desvaux, D. (2015). Managing global risks: Vietnamese poultry farmers & Avian flu. In S. Morand, J.-P. Dujardin, R. Lefait-Robin, & C. Apiwathnasorn (Eds.), Socio-ecological dimensions of infectious diseases in Southeast Asia (pp. 257–273). Singapore: Springer Singapore.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Figuié, M., Pham, A., & Moustier, P. (2013). Grippe aviaire dans la filière. La réorganisation du système agro-industriel au Vietnam. Revue d’Etudes En Agriculture et Environnement, 94(4), 397–419.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Forster, P., & Charnoz, O. (2013). La production de connaissances en temps de crise sanitaire. Revue d’Anthropologie des Connaissances, 7(1), 112–144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Fortané, N. (2015). La surveillance comme dispositif-frontière. La triple ontologie des bactéries résistantes d’origine animale. Revue d’Anthropologie des Connaissances, 9(2), 265–290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Fortané, N. (2017). Naissance et déclin de l’écopathologie (Années 1970 - Années 1990). L’essor contrarié d’une médecine vétérinaire alternative. Regards Sociologiques, 50(51), 133–150.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Fortané, N. (2019). Veterinarian ‘responsibility’: conflicts of definition & appropriation surrounding the public problem of antimicrobial resistance in France. Palgrave Communications, 5, article 67.

  43. Foures, F. (2010). La rage en France : vieux problème, nouvelle crise. Politix, 90(2), 167–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Fritsch, P. (2009). Un corps évolutif : Les Inspecteurs de La santé publique vétérinaire. Review of Agricultural & Environmental Studies - Revue d’Etudes En Agriculture et Environnement, 90(4), 423–448.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Gaignard, L., & Charon, A. (2005). Gestion de crise et traumatisme : les effets collatéraux de la « vache folle ». De l'angoisse singulière à l'embarras collectif. Travailler, 14(2), 57–71.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Gardiner, A. (2014). The ‘dangerous’ women of animal welfare: how British veterinary medicine went to the dogs. Social History of Medicine, 27(3), 466–487.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Gardiner, A., Corr, S., Palmer, C., & Sandøe, P. (2015). The development and role of the veterinary and other professions in relation to companion animals. In P. Sandøe, S. Corr, & C. Palmer (Eds.), Companion animal ethics (pp. 24–40). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Gautier, D. (2001). Professional lapses: occupational deviance & neutralization techniques in veterinary medical practice. Deviant Behavior, 22(6), 467–490.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Gautier, A. (2017). Douleurs en chaîne : une approche multi-niveaux de la santé au travail des agents de l’Etat en abattoir. Thèse pour le doctorat de science politique de l’IEP de Lyon, 18 décembre 2017.

  50. Gautier, A. (2019). Garder un pied dehors : Travail et hors-travail chez les agents de l’État en abattoir. Terrains & Travaux, 34(1), 71–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Hamilton, L. (2007). Muck & magic cultural transformations in the world of farm animal veterinary surgeons. Ethnography, 8(4), 485–501.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Hamilton, L. (2013). The magic of mundane objects: culture, identity & power in a country vets’ practice. The Sociological Review, 61(2), 265–284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Hamilton, L. (2018). Bridging the divide between theory & practice: taking a co-productive approach to vet-farmer relationships. Food Ethics, 1(3), 221–233.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Hardy, A. (2003a). Animals, disease, & man: making connections. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 46(2), 200–215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Hardy, A. (2003b). Professional advantage and public health: British veterinarians and state veterinary services, 1865-1939. Twentieth Century British History, 14(1), 1–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Hardy, A. (2010). John Bull’s beef: meat hygiene and veterinary public health in England in the twentieth century. Review of Agricultural and Environmental Studies - Revue d'Etudes en Agriculture et Environnement, 91(4), 369–392.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Hellberg, I. (1990). The Swedish veterinary profession & the Swedish state. In R. Torstendahl & M. Burrage (Eds.), The Formation of Profession. Knowledge, State & Strategy (pp. 174–185). London: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Hellec, F. (2009). Des formes méconnues de conseil aux agriculteurs. L’exemple du métier d’inséminateur de bovins. In C. Compagnone, C. Auricoste, & B. Lemery (Eds.), Conseil et développement en agriculture. Quelles nouvelles pratiques ? Paris-Dijon: Quae-Educagri.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Helliwell, R., Morris, C., & Raman, S. (2019). Can resistant infections be perceptible in UK dairy farming? Palgrave Communications, 5(1).

  60. Henry, C. & Treanor, L. (2012). The veterinary business landscape: contemporary issues & emerging trends. In: C. Perez-Marin, A Bird’s-Eye View of Veterinary Medicine, IntechOpen. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/31960.

  61. Henry, C., Rushton, J., & Baillie, S. (2016). Exploring the sustainability of small rural veterinary Enterprise. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 23(1), 259–273.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Hipperson, J. (2018). Professional entrepreneurs: Women veterinary surgeons as small business owners in interwar Britain. Social History of Medicine, 31(1), 122–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Hobson-West, P., & Timmons, S. (2015). Animals and anomalies: an analysis of the UK veterinary profession and the relative lack of state reform. The Sociological Review, 64, 47–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Hubscher, R. (1999). Les Maîtres des bêtes. Les vétérinaires dans la société française, XVIIe-XXe siècle. Paris: Odile Jacob.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Hughes, E. (1971). The sociological eye: Selected papers. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Irvine, L., & Vermilya, J. (2010). Gender work in a feminized profession. The case of veterinary medicine. Gender & Society, 24(1), 56–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Jerolmack, C. (2013). Who’s worried about turkeys? How ‘organisational silos’ impede zoonotic disease surveillance. Sociology of Health & Illness, 35(2), 200–212.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Jones, S. (2003). Valuing animals: Veterinarians & Their Patients in modern America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Koolmees, P. (1999). The development of veterinary public health in Western Europe, 1850-1940. Sartoniana, 12, 153–179.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Lammers, J., & Garcia, M. (2009). Exploring the concept of ‘profession’ for organizational communication research institutional influences in a veterinary organization. Management Communication Quarterly, 22(3), 357–384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Law, J. (2010). Care & killing: tensions in veterinary practice. In A. Mol, I. Moser, & J. Pols (Eds.), Care in Practice: On Tinkering in Clinics, Homes & Farms (pp. 57–69). Bielefeld: Transcript.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Law, J., & Mol, A. (2011). Veterinary realities: what is foot and mouth disease? Sociologia Ruralis, 51(1), 1–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Leboeuf A. (2011). Making sense of one health: cooperating at the human-animal-ecosystem health interface, IFRI, Health and Environment Report, 2011.

  74. Lincoln, A. (2010). The shifting supply of men & women to occupations: feminization in veterinary education. Social Forces, 88(5), 1969–1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Lodge, M., & Matus, K. (2014). Science, badgers, politics: advocacy coalitions and policy change in bovine tuberculosis policy in Britain. Policy Studies Journal, 42(3), 367–390.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Lowe, P. (2009). Unlocking potential: a report on veterinary expertise in food animal production. London: Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.

  77. Mather, C., & Marshall, A. (2011). Living with disease? Biosecurity & Avian Influenza in ostriches. Agriculture and Human Values, 28(2), 153–165.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Mills, B. (2016). ‘If this was a human…’: Pets, Vets & Medicine. Critical Studies in Television, 11(2), 244–256.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Minviel, J.-J., Abdouttalib, I., Sans, P., Ferchiou, A., Boluda, C., Portal, J., Lhermie, G., & Raboisson, D. (2019). Models of the French veterinary offices in rural areas and regulation of veterinary drug delivery. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, online first. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104804.

  80. Mitsuda, T. (2017). Entangled histories: German veterinary medicine, c.1770–1900. Medical History, 61(1), 25–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Morris, P. (2012a). Blue juice. Euthanasia in veterinary medicine. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Morris, P. (2012b). Managing pet owners’ guilt & grief in veterinary euthanasia encounters. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 41(3), 337–365.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Muller, S. (2002). Visites à l'abattoir : la mise en scène du travail. Genèses, 49(4), 89–109.

  84. Observatoire National Démographique de la Profession Vétérinaire. (2018). Atlas Démographique de la profession Vétérinaire. Paris: CSOV.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Olfert, R., Jelinski, M., Zikos, D., & Campbell, J. (2012). Human capital drift up the urban hierarchy: veterinarians in Western Canada. The Annals of Regional Science, 49(2), 551–570.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Ollivier, B. (2013a). Quand les vétérinaires et les animaux font l’Europe : l’action publique européenne en santé animale. In Une institutionnalisation fragmentée, Thèse pour le doctorat de science politique. Paris: Institut d’études politiques.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Ollivier, B. (2013b). The end of the French model for animal health? A sociological analysis of the bluetongue vaccination campaign (2007–2009). Sociologia Ruralis, 53(4), 496–514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Paulet, V. (2011). La féminisation de la profession vétérinaire en France : analyse de son impact à partir d’une enquête auprès des praticiens libéraux, Thèse vétérinaire, Université Paul Sabatier.

  89. Robinson, P. (2017). Framing bovine tuberculosis: a ‘political ecology of health’ approach to circulation of knowledge(s) about animal disease control. The Geographical Journal, 183(3), 285–294.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Ruston, A., Shortall, O., Green, M., Brennan, M., Wapenaar, W., & Kaler, J. (2016). Challenges facing the farm animal veterinary profession in England: a qualitative study of veterinarians’ perceptions & responses. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 127, 84–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Sanders, C. (1994). Annoying owners: routine interactions with problematic clients in a general veterinary practice. Qualitative Sociology, 17(2), 159–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Sanders, C. (1995). Killing with kindness: veterinary euthanasia & the social construction of personhood. Sociological Forum, 10(2), 195–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Sanders, C. (1999). Understanding dogs. Living & working with canine companions. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Sanders, C. (2010). Working out back: the veterinary technician & ‘dirty work’. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 39(3), 243–272.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Scoones, I. (2010). Avian influenza: Science, Policy & Politics. London-Washington, DC: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  96. Shortall, O., Ruston, A., Green, M., Brennan, M., Wapenaar, W., & Kaler, J. (2016). Broken biosecurity? Veterinarians’ framing of biosecurity on dairy farms in England. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 132, 20–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Shortall, O., Sutherland, L.-A., Ruston, A., & Kaler, J. (2018). True cowmen & commercial farmers: exploring vets’ & dairy farmers’ contrasting views of ‘good farming’ in relation to biosecurity. Sociologia Ruralis, 58(3), 583–603.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Skipper, A. (2019). The ‘dog doctors’ of Edwardian London: elite canine veterinary care in the early twentieth century. Social History of Medicine, online first. https://doi.org/10.1093/shm/hkz049.

  99. Smith-Howard, K. (2017). Healing animals in an antibiotic age. Veterinary drugs and the professionalism crisis, 1945-1970. Technology and Culture, 58, 722–748.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Surdez, M. (2009). Les bouleversements de la profession vétérinaire. Lorsque la recherche d’une nouvelle légitimité sociale coïncide avec l’arrivée des femmes. Review of Agricultural & Environmental Studies - Revue d’Etudes En Agriculture et Environnement, 90(4), 473–498.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Surdez, M., Debons, J., Piquerez, L. (2018). « De la fourche à la fourchette » : une recomposition des territoires d’activité chez les professionnels suisses du contrôle sanitaire des aliments ? Sociologies, http://journals.openedition.org/sociologies/9013.

  102. Thoms, U. (2015). Handlanger der Industrie oder berufener Schützer des Tieres ? – Der Tierarzt und seine Rolle in der Geflügelproduktion. In G. Hirschfelder, A. Ploeger, J. Rückert-John, & G. Schönberger (Eds.), Was der Mensch essen darf: Ökonomischer Zwang, ökologisches Gewissen und globale Konflikte (pp. 173–192). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Truchet, S., Mauhe, N., & Herve, M. (2017). Veterinarian shortage areas: what determines the location of new graduates? Review of Agricultural. Food & Environmental Studies, 98(4), 255–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. VeTerra (2015). Projet VeTerra Massif central (profession vétérinaire et Territoires ruraux attractifs). Rapport de fin de projet.

  105. Waddington, K. (2006). The bovine scourge: meat, tuberculosis and public health, 1850–1914. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Wang, T., Hennessy, D., & O’Connor, A. (2012). Where are the food animal veterinarian shortage areas anyway? Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 104(3), 198–206.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Wilkie, R. (2010). Livestock/Deadstock. Working with farm animals from birth to slaughter. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Wilkinson, K., Lowe, P., & Donaldson, A. (2010). Beyond policy networks: policy framing and the politics of expertise in the 2001 foot and mouth disease crisis. Public Administration, 88(2), 331–345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Woods, A. (2004). A manufactured plague: the history of foot-and-mouth disease in Britain. London -Sterling: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Woods, A. (2007). The farm as clinic: veterinary expertise & the transformation of dairy farming, 1930-1950. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 38(2), 462–487.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Woods, A. (2011). The Lowe report & its echoes from history. Veterinary Record, 169(17), 434–436.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Woods, A. (2013a). From practical men to scientific experts: British veterinary surgeons and the development of government scientific expertise, c. 1878–1919. History of Science, 51(4), 457–480.

  113. Woods, A. (2013b). Is prevention better than cure? The rise & fall of veterinary preventive medicine, c.1950–1980. Social History of Medicine, 26(1), 113–131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Woods, A. (2014). Science, disease & dairy production in Britain, c.1927 to 1980. The Agricultural History Review, 62(2), 294–314.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nicolas Fortané.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bonnaud, L., Fortané, N. Being a vet: the veterinary profession in social science research . Rev Agric Food Environ Stud (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41130-020-00103-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Veterinary medicine
  • Animal health
  • Profession
  • Veterinarian
  • Review
  • Sociology
  • Social sciences