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Lifestyle factors and jet lag prevention: a preliminary cross-sectional analysis of travel wellness among Japanese and U.S. business class travelers


We intend to examine whether behavioral and mental health-related determinants including stress level, daytime sleepiness, sleep disorders, smoking, drinking, physical activity, and vegetable intake were associated with severity of jet lag and symptoms of jet lag. We delivered a survey to All Nippon Airways HOLDINGS (ANA) customers in Japan and U.S. asking for their lifestyle information, subjective jet lag perceptions, and symptoms of jet lag, and obtained a sample of 1759 Japanese and 483 U.S. participants. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed a positive association between severity of jet lag perception and sleep disorders (Model 2: [b = 0.43, 95% CI 0.25; 0.61]), but a negative association between severe jet lag perception and both smoking (Model 2: [b =  − 0.15, 95% CI − 0.30; − 0.00]) and physical activity (Model 2: [b =  − 0.15, 95% CI − 0.28; − 0.02]). Regarding jet lag symptoms, it revealed a positive association between higher jet lag symptoms and perceived stress (Model 2: [b = 0.32, 95% CI 0.16; 0.47]), sleep disorder (Model 2: [b = 0.32, 95% CI 0.19; 0.44]), and vegetable consumption (Model 2: [b = 0.09, 95% CI 0.00; 0.17]). The results varied for other lifestyle factors, including smoking, physical activity, vegetable intake, and alcohol consumption. Given the health risks among business travelers, this preliminary analysis showed the possible importance of developing evidence-based jet lag prevention strategies.

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The authors would like to thank Ayaka Onozawa, Yumiko Suzuki, Yoshiaki Tsuda, and Takashi Yamamoto, ANA HOLDINGS Inc., for their support in the production of the present study; James Ethridge and Essie Quakyi for developing the questionnaire and coordination with the institutional review board; and Amy Ehntholt for proofreading the manuscript.


This study was funded by ANA HOLDINGS Inc. The sponsor had no control over the interpretation, writing, or publication of this work.

Author information




All authors contributed to the concept or design of the present study; the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of the data; drafting and critically revising the manuscript. All authors gave final approval and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of work, thus ensuring integrity and accuracy.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hana Hayashi.

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Conflict of interest

HN, KV, YY, NK, and IK received consulting fees from McCann Healthcare Worldwide Japan Inc. McCann Healthcare Worldwide Japan Inc. were contracted with ANA HOLDINGS Inc. to conduct the survey used in the present study.

Ethical approval

The present study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston, MA, USA.

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Hayashi, H., Shimoda, A., Li, Y. et al. Lifestyle factors and jet lag prevention: a preliminary cross-sectional analysis of travel wellness among Japanese and U.S. business class travelers. Sleep Biol. Rhythms 19, 127–136 (2021).

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  • Jet lag
  • Lifestyle
  • Behavioral change
  • Stress
  • Sleep