Relationship between nutrition and sleep quality, focusing on the melatonin biosynthesis

Abstract

Sleep duration and quality are associated with many diseases. Evaluating the relationship between nutrient intake and sleep quality is important, because dietary factors play an important role in sleep quality. Short sleep duration which is associated with both metabolic disorders, obesity and, an irregular sleep pattern are thought to be related to an unhealthy diet. The recent literature has been reviewed using EMBASE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases. The effects of macronutrients and micronutrients on sleep parameters have been demonstrated. Carbohydrates and fats can regulate sleep quality by affecting the duration of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. For proteins, tryptophan is the most promising amino acid for sleep-promoting food, since it is the precursor of melatonin and serotonin playing a role in improving sleep quality of humans. It is a common finding that those who have short sleep duration take in more energy from fat and carbohydrate. However, to what extent diet can affect sleep still remains unclear. This present review discusses the potential role of nutrition in regulating sleep quality and offers suggestions for feasible future studies. Some macro and micronutrients of the diet were found correlated with sleep duration and quality. Mechanisms mediating the relationship between sleep duration and dietary intake are multi-factorial. Therefore, future studies will benefit from assessing sleep duration/quality and dietary intake.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Halson SL. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Med. 2014;44(1):13–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Calhoun SL, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A. Excessive daytime sleepiness in a general population sample: the role of sleep apnea, age, obesity, diabetes, and depression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(8):4510–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Krueger PM, Friedman EM. Sleep duration in the United States: a cross-sectional population-based study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169(9):1052–63.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Park S, Cho MJ, Chang SM, Bae JN, Jeon HJ, Cho SJ, et al. Relationships of sleep duration with sociodemographic and health-related factors, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances in a community sample of Korean adults. J Sleep Res. 2010;19(4):567–77.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Patel SR, Zhu X, Storfer-Isser A, Mehra R, Jenny NS, Tracy R, Redline S. Sleep duration and biomarkers of inflammation. Sleep. 2009;32(2):200–4.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Karimi F, Rafati A, Noorafshan A, Hosseini L, Karbalay-Doust S. Sinoatrial node remodels in chronic sleep-restricted rats. Chronobiol Int. 2019;36(4):510–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Tucker P, Bejerot E, Kecklund G, Aronsson G, Åkerstedt T. The impact of work time control on physicians' sleep and well-being. Appl Ergon. 2015;1(47):109–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Lewis PA, Knoblich G, Poe G. How memory replay in sleep boosts creative problem-solving. Trends Cogn Sci. 2018;22(6):491–503.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Åkerstedt T, Ghilotti F, Grotta A, Zhao H, Adami HO, Trolle-Lagerros Y, et al. Sleep duration and mortality: does weekend sleep matter? J Sleep Res. 2019;28(1):e12712. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12712.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Guglielmi O, Lanteri P, Garbarino S. Association between socioeconomic status, belonging to an ethnic minority and obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review of the literature. Sleep Med. 2019;51:100–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2019.01.042.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ash T, Davison KK, Haneuse S, Horan C, Kitos N, Redline S, Taveras EM. Emergence of racial/ethnic differences in infant sleep duration in the first 6 months of life. Sleep Med. 2019;18:100003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleepx.2019.100003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Nakakubo S, Doi T, Makizako H, Tsutsumimoto K, Hotta R, Kurita S, et al. Sleep condition and cognitive decline in Japanese community-dwelling older people: data from a 4-year longitudinal study. J Sleep Res. 2019;28(4):e12803. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12803.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Fallmann S, Chen L. Detecting chronic diseases from sleep-wake behaviour and clinical features. In: 2018 5th international conference on systems and informatics (ICSAI), vol. 10; 2018. pp. 1076–1084.

  14. 14.

    Lentz TA, Brown C. Mindfulness and health behaviors in college students: the moderating role of sleep. J Am Coll Health. 2019;67(6):505–14.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Peuhkuri K, Sihvola N, Korpela R. Diet promotes sleep duration and quality. Nutr Res. 2012;32(5):309–19.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Katagiri R, Asakura K, Kobayashi S, Suga H, Sasaki S. Low intake of vegetables, high intake of confectionary, and unhealthy eating habits are associated with poor sleep quality among middle-aged female Japanese workers. J Occup Health. 2014;56(5):359–68.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Lindseth G, Lindseth P, Thompson M. Nutritional effects on sleep. West J Nurs Res. 2013;35(4):497–513.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Lindseth G, Murray A. Dietary macronutrients and sleep. West J Nurs Res. 2016;38(8):938–58.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Cui Y, Niu K, Huang C, Momma H, Guan L, Kobayashi Y, et al. Relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study. Nutr J. 2015;14(1):127. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-015-0117-x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Aysan E, Karaköse S, Zaybak A, Günay İE. Üniversite öğrencilerinde uyku kalitesi ve etkileyen faktörler. Deuhyo Ed. 2014;7(3):193–8.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Yamatsu A, Yamashita Y, Isafumi MARU, Jinwei YANG, Tatsuzaki J, Mujo KIM. The improvement of sleep by oral intake of GABA and apocynum venetum leaf extract. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2015;61(2):182–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Golem DL, Martin-Biggers JT, Koenings MM, Davis KF, Byrd-Bredbenner C. An integrative review of sleep for nutrition professionals. Adv Nutr Int Rev J. 2014;5(6):742–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    St-Onge MP, Roberts AL, Chen J, Kelleman M, O'Keeffe M, RoyChoudhury A, et al. Short sleep duration increases energy intakes but does not change energy expenditure in normal-weight individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(2):410–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Quick V, Shoff S, Lohse B, White A, Horacek T, Greene G. Relationships of eating competence, sleep behaviors and quality, and overweight status among college students. Eat Behav. 2015;19:15–9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Chaput JP, McNeil J, Després JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Short sleep duration is associated with greater alcohol consumption in adults. Appetite. 2012;59(3):650–5.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Kurotani K, Kochi T, Nanri A, Eguchi M, Kuwahara K, Tsuruoka H, et al. Dietary patterns and sleep symptoms in Japanese workers: the Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study. Sleep Med. 2015;16(2):298–304.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Grandner MA, Kripke DF, Naidoo N, Langer RD. Relationships among dietary nutrients and subjective sleep, objective sleep, and napping in women. Sleep Med. 2010;11(2):180–4.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Quick V, Byrd-Bredbenner C, White AA, Brown O, Colby S, Shoff S, et al. Eat, sleep, work, play: associations of weight status and health-related behaviors among young adult college students. Am J Health Promot. 2014;29(2):e64–e72.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Sato-Mito N, Sasaki S, Murakami K, Okubo H, Takahashi Y, Shibata S. The midpoint of sleep is associated with dietary intake and dietary behavior among young Japanese women. Sleep Med. 2011;12(3):289–94.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Oftedal S, Holliday EG, Attia J, Brown WJ, Collins CE, Ewald B, Stamatakis E. Daily steps and diet, but not sleep, are related to mortality in older Australians. J Sci Med Sport. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.09.018.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Wirt A, Collins CE. Diet quality–what is it and does it matter? Public Health Nutr. 2009;12(12):2473–92.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Hirota T, Fukada Y. Resetting mechanism of central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals. Zool Sci. 2004;21(4):359–68.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Benedict C, Hallschmid M, Lassen A, Mahnke C, Schultes B, Schioth BG, et al. Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:1229–366.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Beccuti G, Pannain S. Sleep and obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011;14(4):402–12.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Ghorbani A, Esmailzadehha N, Mohammadpoorasl A, Ziaee A. Association of Sleep Quality and Waking Time with Prediabetes: The Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study. Iran. Sleep Disord. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/480742.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Garaulet M, Ordovas JM, Madrid JA. The chronobiology, etiology and pathophysiology of obesity. Int J Obes. 2010;34:1667–833.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index. PLoS Med. 2004;1(3):62.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Taheri S. The link between short sleep duration and obesity: we should recommend more sleep to prevent obesity. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91(11):881–4.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Stamatakis KA, Brownson RC. Sleep duration and obesity-related risk factors in the rural Midwest. Prev Med. 2008;46(5):439–44.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Markwald RR, Melanson EL, Smith MR, Higgins J, Perreault L, Eckel RH, Wrigh KP. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013;110(14):5695–700.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Kohsaka A, Bass J. A sense of time: how molecular clocks organize metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2007;18(1):4–11.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Schussler P, Uhr M, Ising M. Nocturnal ghrelin, ACTH, GH and cortisol secretion after sleep deprivation in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2006;31:915–23.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Weikel JC, Wichniak A, Ising M. Ghrelin promotes slow-wave sleep in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;284:E407–E415415.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Spiegel K, Leproult R, L’Hermite-Balériaux M, Copinschi G, Penev PD, Van Cauter E. Leptin levels are dependent on sleep duration: relationships with sympathovagal balance, carbohydrate regulation, cortisol, and thyrotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(11):5762–71.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Nedeltcheva AV, Kilkus JM, Imperial J, Kasza K, Schoeller DA, Penev PD. Sleep curtailment is accompanied by increased intake of calories from snacks. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(1):126–33.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Gonnissen HKJ, Hulshof T, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Chronobiology, endocrinology, and energy- and food-reward homeostasis. Obes Rev. 2013;14:405–16.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Afaghi A, Oconnor H, Chow CM. High-glycemic-index carbohydrate meals shorten sleep onset. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(2):426–30.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Arnulf I, Quintin P, Alvarez JC, Vigil L, Touitou Y, Lèbre AS, Benkelfat C. Mid-morning tryptophan depletion delays REM sleep onset in healthy subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27(5):843–51.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Afaghi A, O'Connor H, Chow CM. Acute effects of the very low carbohydrate diet on sleep indices. Nutr Neurosci. 2008;11(4):146–54.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Santana AA, Pimentel GD, Romualdo M, Oyama LM, Santos RVT, Pinho RA, et al. Sleep duration in elderly obese patients correlated negatively with intake fatty. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11(1):99. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-11-99.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Yajima K, Iwayama K, Masanobu HIBI, Sayaka HARI, Nakashima Y, Ogata H, et al. Effects of nutrient composition of dinner on sleep architecture and energy metabolism during sleep. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2014;60(2):114–21.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Grandner MA, Jackson N, Gerstner JR, Knutson KL. Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration: data from a nationally representative sample. Appetite. 2013;64:71–80.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    St-Onge MP, Mikic A, Pietrolungo CE. Effects of diet on sleep quality. Adv Nutr Int Rev J. 2016;7(5):938–49.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Weiss A, Xu F, Storfer-Isser A, Thomas A, Ievers-Landis CE, Redline S. The association of sleep duration with adolescents' fat and carbohydrate consumption. Sleep. 2010;33(9):1201–9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Clifford LM, Beebe DW, Simon SL, Kuhl ES, Filigno SS, Rausch JR, Stark LJ. The association between sleep duration and weight in treatment-seeking preschoolers with obesity. Sleep Med. 2012;13(8):1102–5.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Kim S, DeRoo LA, Sandler DP. Eating patterns and nutritional characteristics associated with sleep duration. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(05):889–95.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Franckle RL, Falbe J, Gortmaker S, Ganter C, Taveras EM, Land T, et al. Insufficient sleep among elementary and middle school students is linked with elevated soda consumption and other unhealthy dietary behaviors. Prev Med. 2015;74:36–41.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Nehme P, Marqueze EC, Ulhoˆa M, Moulatlet E, Codarin MA, Moreno CR. Effects of a carbohydrate-enriched night meal on sleepiness and sleep duration in night workers: a double-blind intervention. Chronobiol Int. 2014;31(4):453–60.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Jalilolghadr S, Afaghi A, O'Connor H, Chow CM. Effect of low and high glycaemic index drink on sleep pattern in children. J Pak Med Assoc. 2011;61(6):533.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Fleig D, Randler C. Association between chronotype and diet in adolescents based on food logs. Eat Behav. 2009;10(2):115–8.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Lieberman HR. Nutrition, brain function and cognitive performance. Appetite. 2003;40(3):245–54.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Halson SL. Nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Sci Exch. 2013;26(116):1–5.

    Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Snijders T, Res PT, Smeets JS, van Vliet S, van Kranenburg J, Maase K, van Loon LJ. Protein ingestion before sleep increases muscle mass and strength gains during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in healthy young men. J Nutr. 2015;145(6):1178–84.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Pagan C, Goubran-Botros H, Delorme R, Benabou M, Lemière N, Murray K, Fauchereau F. Disruption of melatonin synthesis is associated with impaired 14-3-3 and miR-451 levels in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):1–11.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Lauer CJ, Krieg JC. Sleep in eating disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2004;8(2):109–18.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Doo M, Kim Y. Association between sleep duration and obesity is modified by dietary macronutrients intake in Korean. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2016;10:424–31.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Yingting C, Anne WT, Xiaoqun P. Dinner fat intake and sleep duration and self-reported sleep parameters over five years: findings from the Jiangsu Nutrition Study of Chinese adults. Nutrition. 2016;32:970–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Ma Y, Bertone ER, Stanek EJ III. Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158(1):85–92.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Zhou J, Kim JE, Armstrong CL, Chen N, Campbell WW. Higher-protein diets improve indexes of sleep in energy-restricted overweight and obese adults: results from 2 randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(3):766–74.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Irmisch G, Schläfke D, Gierow W, Herpertz S, Richter J. Fatty acids and sleep in depressed inpatients. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007;76(1):1–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Shi Z, McEvoy M, Luu J, Attia J. Dietary fat and sleep duration in Chinese men and women. Int J Obes. 2008;32(12):1835–40.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Brondel L, Romer MA, Nougues PM, Touyarou P, Davenne D. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(6):1550–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Lichstein KL, Payne KL, Soeffing JP. Vitamins and sleep: an exploratory study. Sleep Med. 2008;9(1):27–322.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Bravaccio C, Terrone G, Rizzo R, Gulisano M, Tosi M, Curatolo P, Emberti GL. Use of nutritional supplements based on melatonin, tryptophan and vitamin B6 in children with primary chronic headache, with or without sleep disorders: a pilot study. Minerva Pediatr. 2019. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.19.05533-6.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Catalá A. The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1801:95–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Silber BY, Schmitt JAJ. Effects of tryptophan loading on human cognition, mood, and sleep. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010;34:387–407.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Luboshitzky R, Ophir U, Nave R, Epstein R, Shen-Orr Z, Herer P. The effect of pyridoxine administration on melatonin secretion in normal men. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 2002;23(3):213–8.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Ebben M, Lequerica A, Spielman A. Effects of pyridoxine on dreaming: a preliminary study. Percept Mot Skills. 2002;94(1):135–40.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Mayer G, Kroger M, Meier-Ewert K. Effects of vitamin B12 on performance and circadian rhythm in normal subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1996;15(5):456–64.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Mason C, de Dieu TJ, Duggan C, Wang CY, Korde L, McTiernan A. Repletion of vitamin D associated with deterioration of sleep quality among postmenopausal women. Prev Med. 2016;93:166–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.09.035.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Massa J, Stone KL, Wei EK, Harrison SL, Barrett-Connor E, Lane NE, Schernhammer E. Vitamin D and actigraphic sleep outcomes in older community-dwelling men: the MrOS sleep study. Sleep. 2015;38(2):251–7. https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4408.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Bertisch SM, Sillau S, De Boer IH, Szklo M, Redline S. 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and sleep duration and continuity: multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Sleep. 2015;38(8):1305–11. https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4914.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Meolie AL, Rosen C, Kristo D, Kohrman M, Gooneratne N, Aguillard RN. Oral nonprescription treatment for insomnia: an evaluation of products with limited evidence. J Clin Sleep Med. 2005;1:173–87.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Hornyak M, Haas P, Veit J, Gann H, Riemann D. Magnesium treatment of primary alcohol-dependent patients during subacute withdrawal: an open pilot study with polysomnography. Alcoholism. 2004;28(11):1702–9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Held K, Antonijevic IA, Künzel H, Uhr M, Wetter TC, Golly IC, Murck H. Oral Mg2+ supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002;35(04):135–43.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Rondanelli M, Opizzi A, Monteferrario F, Antoniello N, Manni R, Klersy C. The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59(1):82–90.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Godos J, Ferri R, Caraci F, Cosentino FII, Castellano S, Galvano F, Grosso G. Adherence to the mediterranean diet is associated with better sleep quality in Italian adults. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):976. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050976.

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

GS wrote the paper with contributions from NS. All authors contributed to the review of drafts and read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nevin Sanlier.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sanlier, N., Sabuncular, G. Relationship between nutrition and sleep quality, focusing on the melatonin biosynthesis. Sleep Biol. Rhythms 18, 89–99 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41105-020-00256-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sleep
  • Sleep quality
  • Nutrition
  • Diet
  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients