This study was conducted to investigate ocular complications and their relationship with sleep problems between IT students at Shahroud University of Technology as professional computer users and public health students at Shahroud University of Medical Sciences as non-professional computer users. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014–2015 on 290 students, including 145 IT and 145 public health students. The students were selected by simple random sampling. Data were collected using five questionnaires, including a demographic questionnaire, the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), the Visual Fatigue Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the STOP-BANG, and an examination for visual acuity. Data were analyzed in SPSS-22 using descriptive and inferential statistics and the level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. The comparisons showed a significant difference in the mean scores of the OSDI, VFQ and ESS between the male and female students, as all these scores were higher in the female students; however, no significant differences were observed in these scores between the professional and non-professional users. Given the significant direct relationships between the scores of the four questionnaires, it can be argued that sleep disorders and ocular disorders have reciprocal effects on each other. Sleepiness, dry eye and eye strain were not different between the groups of professional and non-professional computer users, but long hours of computer and cellphone use were observed so all students need to receive further education and correct ergonomics regardless of their field of study.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access
Our deepest gratitude and appreciation to School of public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran, and Student Research Committee, School of public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
This study was supported by School of public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.
Davey S, Davey A. Assessment of smartphone addiction in Indian adolescents: a mixed method study by systematic‑review and meta‑analysis approach. Int J Prev Med. 2015;12:1500–11.Google Scholar
Haji-Ali-Nili N, Khoshzaban F, Karimi M. Lifestyle determinants on prevention and improvement of dry eye disease from the perspective of Iranian traditional medicine. Iran J Med Sci. 2016;41:S39.Google Scholar
Biswas NMR, Nainiwal SK, Das GKN, et al. Comparative randomised controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop with artificial tear and placebo in computer vision syndrome. J Indian Med Assoc. 2003;101:208–9, 212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Catalán P, Martínez A, Herrejón Aet al. Internal consistency and validity of the Spanish version of the quality of life questionnaire specific for obstructive sleep apnea: Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index. Arch Bronconeumol. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arbres.2012.05.004.Google Scholar
Gay PC. Sleep and sleep-disordered breathing in the hospitalized patient. Respir Care. 2010;55:1240–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Luo J, Huang R, Zhong X, Xiao Y, Zhou J. Value of STOP-Bang questionnaire in screening patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome in sleep disordered breathing clinic. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013;127:1843–8.Google Scholar
Kumar S, Bhatia M, Behari M. Excessive daytime sleepiness in Parkinson’s disease as assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Sleep Med. 2003;4:339–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kong IG, Lee HJ, Kim SY, Sim S, Choi HG. Physical activity, study sitting time, leisure sitting time, and sleep time are differently associated with obesity in Korean adolescents: a population-based study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000001965.Google Scholar