A major consequence of the invasion of digital media devices with screens equipped with light-emitting diode (LED) into bedrooms exposes the users to ongoing short wavelength (SWL) lighting during the evening and at night when under natural conditions, long wavelength are dominant. Results of several studies reveal a negative physiological, behavioral, and functional outcome of the exposure to SWL artificial light at night (ALAN) from digital media screens. The aims of our study are to assess the relationships between digital media usage, sleep patterns, subjective sleepiness, and attention abilities in adult Israeli citizens compared with Israeli adolescents. We recruited 280 adult participants using convenience sample method, 49% males and 51% females with an age range of 18–82. The participants filled out self-reporting novel and original questionnaires as follows: demographic, general health evaluation, sleep habits, and difficulties by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), prevalence, and usage patterns of digital media devices. Smartphones are the most used digital media device in the evening and after bedtime (the time one gets to sleep in bed). Israeli adults used smartphones for 30 min and TV for about 15 min after bedtime. We noted that excessive exposure to these devices at nighttime was associated with longer sleep latency (r = 0.192, p < 0.01) and decreased sleep hours (r = − 0.143, p < 0.05). Moreover, we found a negative correlation between attention abilities in the morning and the usage time of digital media at nighttime (r = − 0.155, p < 0.01). Exposure to digital screens at evening and nighttime was positively correlated with subjective sleepiness on the KSS (r = 0.135, p < 0.05, and r = 0.261, p < 0.01). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to explore the association between digital media screens usage, sleep, and concentration abilities in the Israeli adult.
Digital screen Sleepiness Concentration Smartphone Israel Adult
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All authors declare no financial or non-financial disclosures
Compliance with ethical standards
The institutional ethical review board at the University of Haifa approved the study. Approval Number: 039/17. Date: 29.1.2017.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
Green Amit, Prof. Dagan Yaron, and Prof. Haim Abraham declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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