Sleep and Biological Rhythms

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 177–185 | Cite as

Relationships between daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, duration, and phase among school-aged children: a cross-sectional survey

  • Shintaro Hara
  • Ryuichiro YamamotoEmail author
  • Miki Maruyama
  • Reiko Hojo
  • Shinobu Nomura
Original Article


A cross-sectional survey was conducted to simultaneously evaluate sleep quality, duration, and phase in school-aged children and correlations between each dimension of sleep and daytime sleepiness were comprehensively examined. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with school-aged children enrolled in four public elementary schools in Joetsu city, Niigata prefecture in Japan (n = 1683). Among the collected responses (n = 1290), 1134 valid responses (547 boys and 587 girls) were analyzed (valid response rate was 87.90%). Data on daytime sleepiness, sleep quality (problems in sleeping at night), sleep duration (the average sleeping time during a week), and sleep phase (sleep timing: bedtime and rising time on weekdays, and sleep regularity: differences in bedtime and rising time between on weekdays and weekends) were collected. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the following dimensions were significantly correlated with daytime sleepiness: the decline in sleep quality [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.71–4.00], bedtime after 21:30 on weekdays (AOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.15–2.18), bedtime delay on weekends, compared to weekdays (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.27–2.41), and bedtime advance on weekends, compared to weekdays (AOR = 3.33, 95% CI = 1.78–6.20). Sleep dimensions that significantly affected daytime sleepiness in school-aged children are sleep quality, bedtime-timing, and regularity of bedtime. It is important to detect problems in night sleep and establish treatments, as well as to provide support for early bedding on weekdays and for a regular bedtime both on weekdays and on weekends to prevent daytime sleepiness in school-aged children.


School-aged children Daytime sleepiness Sleep quality Sleep duration Sleep phase Cross-sectional survey 



This study was funded by Research Project of Joetsu University of Education (General Research 2014–2015) and JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. JP 16H03247.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This study was permitted by the Ethics Committee of Joetsu University of Education (Permission number: 56).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Sleep Research 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shintaro Hara
    • 1
  • Ryuichiro Yamamoto
    • 2
    Email author
  • Miki Maruyama
    • 3
  • Reiko Hojo
    • 4
  • Shinobu Nomura
    • 5
  1. 1.Graduate School of Human SciencesWaseda UniversityTokorozawaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and Humanities, College of SociologyEdogawa UniversityNagareyamaJapan
  3. 3.Joetsu Municipal Kasuga Junior High SchoolJoetsuJapan
  4. 4.Division of Humanities and Social Education, Graduate School of EducationJoetsu University of EducationJoetsuJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of Human SciencesWaseda UniversityTokorozawaJapan

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