Sleep and Biological Rhythms

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 99–105 | Cite as

Effects of total nocturnal sleep time and siesta on hepatocellular carcinoma risks in individuals with chronic HBV infection

  • Xu-Jin Liu
  • Fan Zhang
  • Yuan Liu
  • Yu-Chen Fan
  • Kai Wang
Original Article


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of total nocturnal sleep time and siesta on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risks in chronic HBV infected individuals. This research was retrospective. A case–control study with 226 HCC patients and 375 controls enrolled was conducted. All subjects were chronic HBV infected. The total nocturnal sleep time and siesta or not were recorded by interview. We found that the total nocturnal sleep time and siesta were associated with the incidence of HCC (p < 0.001). The adjusted OR of HCC for the subjects with the shortest total nocturnal sleep time (≤ 6 hs) was 2.557 (p = 0.032), relative to those who slept between 6 and 8 h. The patients who slept ≥ 8 h experienced much lower risk. The adjusted OR of HCC for subjects with total nocturnal sleep time ≥ 8 h were 0.507 (p = 0.005) relative to those who slept 6–8 h. The subjects without siesta habit experienced a higher risk of HCC compared to those who with the siesta habit (adjusted OR 2.157, p = 0.001). These findings indicate that lack of nocturnal sleep is a potential risk factor for HCC in chronic HBV infected individuals whereas the siesta is a protective factor.


Total nocturnal sleep time Siesta Hepatocellular carcinoma Chronic hepatitis B virus infection 



Hepatitis B virus


Hepatitis C virus


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hepatitis B surface antigen


Hepatitis B e antigen


Odds ratio


Confidence interval


Computer tomography


Magnetic resonance imaging


Alanine transaminase


Aspartate transaminase


Total bilirubin




Alkaline phosphatase




Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease


Body mass index





The authors would like to thank the patients and controls for their participation.

Compliance with ethical standards


This research received no grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflicts (financial, professional, or personal) of interest that are relevant to this manuscript.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

41105_2017_131_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 21 KB)


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Sleep Research 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xu-Jin Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fan Zhang
    • 3
  • Yuan Liu
    • 4
  • Yu-Chen Fan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kai Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of HepatologyQilu Hospital of Shandong UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.Institute of HepatologyShandong UniversityJinanChina
  3. 3.Department of Plastic SurgeryQilu Hospital of Shandong UniversityJinanChina
  4. 4.Department of RadiotherapyQilu Hospital of Shandong UniversityJinanChina

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