Effects of total nocturnal sleep time and siesta on hepatocellular carcinoma risks in individuals with chronic HBV infection
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of total nocturnal sleep time and siesta on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risks in chronic HBV infected individuals. This research was retrospective. A case–control study with 226 HCC patients and 375 controls enrolled was conducted. All subjects were chronic HBV infected. The total nocturnal sleep time and siesta or not were recorded by interview. We found that the total nocturnal sleep time and siesta were associated with the incidence of HCC (p < 0.001). The adjusted OR of HCC for the subjects with the shortest total nocturnal sleep time (≤ 6 hs) was 2.557 (p = 0.032), relative to those who slept between 6 and 8 h. The patients who slept ≥ 8 h experienced much lower risk. The adjusted OR of HCC for subjects with total nocturnal sleep time ≥ 8 h were 0.507 (p = 0.005) relative to those who slept 6–8 h. The subjects without siesta habit experienced a higher risk of HCC compared to those who with the siesta habit (adjusted OR 2.157, p = 0.001). These findings indicate that lack of nocturnal sleep is a potential risk factor for HCC in chronic HBV infected individuals whereas the siesta is a protective factor.
KeywordsTotal nocturnal sleep time Siesta Hepatocellular carcinoma Chronic hepatitis B virus infection
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis C virus
Hepatitis B surface antigen
Hepatitis B e antigen
Magnetic resonance imaging
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Body mass index
The authors would like to thank the patients and controls for their participation.
Compliance with ethical standards
This research received no grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of interest
All authors have no conflicts (financial, professional, or personal) of interest that are relevant to this manuscript.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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