Laboratory and home comparison of wrist-activity monitors and polysomnography in middle-aged adults
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Accurate measurement of time at lights out is essential for calculation of several measures of sleep in wrist-activity monitors. While some devices use subjective reporting of time of lights out from a sleep diary, others utilise an automated proprietary scoring algorithm to calculate time at lights out, thereby negating the need for a sleep diary. This study aimed to compare sleep measures from two such devices to polysomnography (PSG) measures (In laboratory) and against each other when worn at home (At home). Fifty middle-aged adults from the Raine Study underwent overnight PSG during which they wore an ActiGraph™ and a Readiband™. They also wore both devices at home for 7 nights. The Readiband uses an automated proprietary algorithm to determine time at lights out whereas the ActiGraph requires completion of a sleep diary noting this time. In laboratory, compared to PSG: Readiband underestimated time at lights out, sleep onset, and wake after sleep onset, overestimated sleep latency and duration (p < 0.001 for all); while ActiGraph underestimated sleep latency and wake after sleep onset and overestimated sleep efficiency and duration (p < 0.001 for all). Similar differences between devices were observed on the laboratory night and when at home. In conclusion, an automated algorithm such as the Readiband may be used in the same capacity as the ActiGraph for the collection of sleep measures including time at sleep onset, sleep duration and time at wake. However, Readiband and ActiGraph measures of sleep latency, efficiency and wake after sleep onset should be interpreted with caution.
KeywordsActigraphy Algorithm Validation Polysomnography Sleep Technology
We acknowledge and thank the Raine Study participants, their families Raine study team for cohort management and data collection. Many thanks to Fatigue Science, Vancouver, British Columbia for the supply of Readibands™.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Ian C Dunican and John A Caldwell have previously undertaken consultancy work for Fatigue Science, but neither are currently engaged in any capacity with the company. The Raine Study 22-year follow-up was supported by NHMRC Project Grants 10277449, 1021858, 1031617 and 1044840. Core funding for cohort management was provided by the University of Western Australia, the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Raine Medical Research Foundation, University of Western Australia Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, Women’s and Infant’s Research Foundation, Edith Cowan University and Curtin University. Professors Straker and Eastwood were funded by National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) Senior Research Fellowships (1019980, 1042341).
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study and ethical approval was obtained from the University of Western Australia Human Research Ethics Committee.
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