Advertisement

Adsorptive Removal of Phenol by Activated Alumina and Activated Carbon from Coconut Coir and Rice Husk Ash

  • Ashanendu Mandal
  • Sudip Kumar DasEmail author
Original Paper
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

Phenol (C6H5OH) is considered as a serious environmental pollutant, and therefore, the study for its removal from wastewater by adsorption has gained momentum by many researchers. The purpose of this research was to study the phenol removal efficiency using three adsorbents viz. activated alumina and activated carbon from coconut coir and rice husk ash. Initially, the characterizations of the adsorbents were performed. The phenol removal percentage was then investigated in batch experiments with the change of process variables, e.g., initial phenol concentration, contact time, pH, temperature, and adsorbent dose. The experimental results showed that at optimum conditions, the maximum phenol removals for activated alumina and activated carbon from coconut coir and rice husk ash were 21.8%, 95.2%, and 94.23% respectively. These results were tested using several isotherms and kinetic and thermodynamic models. The test of kinetic models showed that pseudo-second-order model was fitted better than the pseudo-first-order model for all three adsorbents. The test of isotherm models showed that the Freundlich isotherm was better for activated alumina and activated carbon from coconut coir, whereas the Langmuir isotherm was better for rice husk ash. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous, non-random, and exothermic for activated alumina; spontaneous, non-random, and exothermic for activated carbon from coconut coir; and spontaneous, random, and endothermic for rice husk ash. The safe disposals of the spent adsorbents were also deliberated in this study. The research discovered that the preference of adsorbents for phenol removal was rice husk ash, activated carbon from coconut coir, and activated alumina. The novelty of this study was that the paper had included exhaustive analysis using testing of numerous models viz. pseudo-first-order model, pseudo-second-order model, Reichenberg model, Fick model, Furusawa and Smith model, Elovich model, Boyd model, Langmuir model, Freundlich model, Temkin model, and Dubinin–Radushkevich model.

Keywords

Activate alumina Activated carbon Rice husk ash Adsorption Phenol 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Lua AC, Jia QP (2009) Adsorption of phenol by oil-palm-shell activated carbons in a fixed bed. Chem Eng J 150:45–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dabrowski A, Podkoscielny P, Hubicki M, Barczak M (2005) Adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbon - a critical review. Chemosphere. 58:1049–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dutta NN, Borthakur S, Patil GS (2006) Phase transfer catalyzed extraction of phenolic substances from aqueous alkaline stream. Sep Sci Technol 27(11):1435–1448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Muhtaseb AH, Ibrahim KA, Albadarin AB, Ali-khashman O, Walker GM, Ahmad MN (2011) Remediation of phenol-contaminated water by adsorption using poly methyl methacrylate. Chem Eng J 168:691–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Garbellini GS, Salazar-Banda GR, Avaca LA (2010) Effects of ultrasound on the degradation of pentachlorophenol by boron-doped diamond electrodes. Port Electro Chim Acta 28(6):405–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Saleh TA, Adio SO, Asif M, Dafalla H (2018) Statistical analysis of phenols adsorption on diethylenetriamine-modified activated carbon. J Clean Prod 182:960–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chaudhary N, Balomajumder C, Agrawal B, Jagati VS (2014) Removal of phenol using flyash and impregnated fly ash: an approach to equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study. Sep Sci Technol 50:690–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hao OJ, Kim H, Chiang PC (2000) Decolorization of wastewater. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 30:449–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Roostaei N, Tezel FH (2004) Removal of phenol from aqueous solutions by adsorption. J Environ Manag 70:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abubakar UC, Alhooshani KR, Adamu S, Thagfi AJ, Saleh TA (2019) The effect of calcination temperature on the activity of hydrodesulfurization catalysts supported on mesoporous activated carbon. J Clean Prod 211:1567–1575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gupta VK, Agarwal S, Saleh TA (2011) Chromium removal by combining the magnetic properties of iron oxide with adsorption properties of carbon nanotubes. Water Res 45(6):2207–2212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Banat FA, Al-Bashir B, Al-Asheh S, Hayajneh O (2000) Adsorption of phenol by bentonite. Environ Pollut 107:390–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mandal A, Mukhopadhyay P, Das SK (2018) Removal of phenol from aqueous solution using activated carbon from coconut coir. IOSR J Eng 8(12):41–55Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mandal A, Mukhopadhyay P, Das SK (2019) The study of adsorption efficiency of rice husk ash for removal of phenol from wastewater with low initial phenol concentration. SN App Sci 1(2):192–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Greenberg AE, Eaton AD, Franson MAH, Clesceri LS (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Amer Pub Hea Asso 20:874Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Singha B, Das SK (2012) Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution and industrial effluent using natural biosorbents. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19(6):2212–2226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lalhruaitluanga H, Jayaram K, Prasad MNV, Kumar KK (2010) Lead(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions by raw and activated charcoals of Melocanna baccifera Roxburgh (bamboo)—a comparative study. J Hazard Mater 175(1–3):311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Asmaly HA, Abussaud IB, Saleh TA, Laoui T, Gupta VK, Atieh MA (2015) Adsorption of phenol on aluminium oxide impregnated fly ash. Desal Wat Treat 57(15):6801–6808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aguilar-Carrillo J, Garrido F, Barrios L, Garcia-Gonzales MT (2006) Sorption of As, Cd and Ti as influenced by industrial by-products applied to an acidic soil: equilibrium and kinetic experiments. Chemosphere. 65(11):2377–2387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Uddin MT, Islam MS, Adedin MZ (2007) Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution by water hyacinth ash. ARPN J Eng App Sci 2(2):11–17Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ekpete OA, Horsfall M, Tarawou T (2010) Potential of fluid and commercial activated carbons for phenol removal in aqueous systems. ARPN J Eng App Sci 5(9):39–47Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Darwish NA, Halhouli KA, Al-Dhoon NM (1996) Adsorption of phenol from aqueous systems onto spent oil shale. Sep Sci Technol 31(5):705–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reichenberg D (1993) Properties of ion-exchange resins in relation to their structure. III. Kinetics of exchange. J Am Chem Soc 75(3):589–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Choy KKH, Ko DCK, Cheubg CW, Porter JF, McKay G (2004) Film and intraparticle mass transfer during the adsorption of metal ions onto bone char. J Colloid Interface Sci 271(2):284–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ho YS, McKay G (2002) Application of kinetic models to the sorption of copper(II) onto peat. Adsorpt Sci Technol 20(8):797–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Boyd GE, Adamson AW, Myers LS (1947) The exchange adsorption of ions from aqueous solutions by organic zeolites. II. Kinetic. J Am Chem Soc 69(11):2836–2848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Srivastava VC, Mall ID, Mishra IM (2009) Competitive adsorption of cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution onto rice husk ash. Chem Eng Process 48(1):370–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Langmuir I (1918) The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J Am Chem Soc 40(9):1361–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Aksu Z, Yener J (2001) A comparative adsorption/absorption study of mono-chlorinated phenol onto various sorbent. Waste Manag 21(8):695–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hall KR, Vermeylem T (1966) Pore and solid diffusion kinetics in fixed bed adsorption under constant pattern conditions. J Eng Chem Fund 4:212–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Freundlich HMF (1906) Over the adsorption in solution. J Phys Chem 57:385–471Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Temkin MI, Pyzhev V (1940) Kinetics of ammonia synthesis on promoted Iron catalyst. Acta Physiochim URSS 12:217–222Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dubinin MM, Radushkevich LV (1947) The equation of the characteristic curve of the activated charcoal. Pro Aca Sci USSR Phy Chem Sec 55:331–337Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ozkaya B (2005) Adsorption and desorption of phenol on activated carbon and a comparison of isotherm models. J Hazard Mater B129:158–163Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tor A, Cengeloglu Y, Aydin ME, Ersoz M (2006) Removal of phenol from aqueous phase by using neutralized red mud. J Colloid Interface Sci 300:498–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Malakootian M, Mahvi AH, Mansoorian HJ, Khanjani N (2018) Agrowaste based ecofriendly bio-adsorbent for the removal of phenol: adsorption and kinetic study by acacia tortilis pod shell. Chiang Mai J Sci 45(1):355–368Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Abbas MN, Al-Hermizy SMM, Abudi ZN, Ibrahim TA (2019) Phenol biosorption from polluted aqueous solutions by ulva lactuca alga using batch mode unit. J Eco Eng 20(6):225–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Alkaram UF, Mukhlis AA, Al-Dujaili AH (2009) The removal of phenol from aqueous solutions by adsorption using surfactant-modified bentonite and kaolinite. J Hazard Mater 169:324–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Abdelwahab O, Amin NK (2013) Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions by Luffa cylindrica fibers: kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. Egypt J Aquat Res 39(4):215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Singh K, Chandra B (2015) Adsorption behaviours of phenols onto high specific area activated carbon derived from Trapa bispinosa. Indian J Chem Technol 22:11–19Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nouri H, Quederni A (2013) Modeling of the dynamics adsorption of phenol from an aqueous solution on activated carbon produced from olive stones. Int J Chem Eng Appl 4(4):254–261Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Srivastava VC, Swamy MM, Mall ID, Prasad B, Mishra IM (2006) Adsorptive removal of phenol by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics. Col Surf 272:89–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations