Advertisement

Topics in Current Chemistry

, 375:6 | Cite as

Electron Beam Technology and Other Irradiation Technology Applications in the Food Industry

  • Suresh D. Pillai
  • Shima Shayanfar
Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Applications of Radiation Chemistry

Abstract

Food irradiation is over 100 years old, with the original patent for X-ray treatment of foods being issued in early 1905, 20 years after there discovery by W. C. Roentgen in 1885. Since then, food irradiation technology has become one of the most extensively studied food processing technologies in the history of mankind. Unfortunately, it is the one of the most misunderstood technologies with the result that there are rampant misunderstandings of the core technology, the ideal applications, and how to use it effectively to derive the maximum benefits. There are a number of books, book chapters, and review articles that provide overviews of this technology [25, 32, 36, 39]. Over the last decade or so, the technology has come into greater focus because many of the other pathogen intervention technologies have been unable to provide sustainable solutions on how to address pathogen contamination in foods. The uniqueness of food irradiation is that this technology is a non-thermal food processing technology, which unto itself is a clear high-value differentiator from other competing technologies.

Keywords

Electron beam Food irradiation Phytosanitary Pathogen Pasteurization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Hatch grant H8708 administered by the Texas A&M AgriLife Research of the Texas A&M University System. This work was also completed as part of the activities of the IAEA Collaborating Centre for Electron Beam Technology.

References

  1. 1.
    Aziz NH, Moussa LAA (2002) Influence of gamma-radiation on mycotoxin-producing moulds and mycotoxins in fruits. Food Control 13:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown D (2015) Integrating electron beam equipment into food processing facilities: strategies and design consideration. In: Pillai SD, Shayanfar S (eds) Electron beam pasteurization and complimentary food processing technologies Chapter 3. Woodhead publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bullerman LB, Bianchini A (2007) Stability of mycotoxins during food processing. Int J Food Microbiol 119(1–2):140–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Calado T, Venancio A, Abrunhosa L (2014) Irradiation for mold and mycotoxin control: a review. Comp Rev Food Sci Safety 13:1049–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chmielewski AG, Kang CM, Kang CS, Vujic JL (2006) Radiation technology. Introduction to industrial and environmental applications. Seoul National University Press, Seoul, p 274Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clemmons HE, Clemmons EJ, Brown EJ (2015) Electron beam proessing of fresh and/or frozen raw ground beef. In: Pillai SD, Shayanfar S (eds) Electron beam pasteurization and complimentary food processing technologies Chapter 14. Woodhead publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    de Camargo AC, Vieira TMFD, Regitano-d’Arce MAB, de Alencar SM, Calori-Domingues MA, Spoto MHF, Canniatti-Brazaca SG (2012) Gamma irradiation of in-shell and blanched peanuts protects against mycotoxic fungi and retains their nutraceutical components during long-term storage. Int J Mol Sci 13:10935–10958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Espinosa AC, Jesudhasan P, Arredondo R, Cepeda M, Mazari-Hiriart M, Mena KD, Pillai SD (2012) Quantifying the reduction in potential health risks by determining the sensitivity of poliovirus type 1 chat strain and rotavirus SA-11 to electron beam irradiation of iceberg lettuce and spinach. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:988–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    European Food Safety Authority (2011) Scientific opinion on the efficacy and microbiological safety of irradiation of food. EFSA J 9:2103–2201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    European Food Safety Authority (2011) Scientific opinion on the chemical safety of irradiation of food. EFSA J 9:1930–1956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frank HK (1970) Radiation resistance of aflatoxins. Irradiat Aliments. 11:15–20Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ghoddusi HB, Glatz B (2004) Decontamination of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) by electron beam irradiation. Acta Hortic ISHS 650:339–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Haas CN, Rose JB, Gerba CP (1999) Quantitative microbial risk assessment. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hieke C (2015). Investigating the inactivation, physiological characteristics and transcriptomic responses of bacteria exposed to ionizing radiation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TexasGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hirasa K, Takemasa M (1998) Spices and herbs: basic concepts. In: Hirasa K, Takemasa (eds) Spice science and technology. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp 1–2Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ic E, Kottapalli B, Maxim J, Pillai SD (2007) Electron beam irradiation of dried fruits and nuts to reduce yeast and mold bioburden. J Food Prot 70:981–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ito H, Chen H, Bunnak J (1994) Aflatoxin production by microorganisms of the Aspergillus flvous group in spices and the effect of irradiation. J Food Agric 65:141–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jalili M, Jinap S, Noranizan A (2010) Effect of gamma radiation on reduction of mycotoxins in black pepper. Food Control 21(10):1388–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jalili M, Jinap S, Noranizan MA (2012) Aflatoxins and ochratoxin a reduction in black and white pepper by gamma radiation. Rad Phys Chem 81:1786–1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jeffers L (2016) Hands-on electron beam technology workshop. Texas A&M University, College StationGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jouany JP (2007) Methods for preventing, decontaminating and minimizing the toxicity of mycotoxins in feeds. Anim Feed Sci Technol 137:342–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kume T, Ito H, Soedarman H, Ishigaki I (1989) Radiosensitivity of toxigenic Aspergillus isolated from spices and destruction of aflatoxins by gamma-irradiation. Radiat Phys Chem 34:973–978Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lutz W, Sanderson W, Scherbov S (2001) The end of world population growth. Nature 412:543–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kume T, Furuta M, Todoriki S, Uenoyama N, Kobayashi Y (2008) Status of food irradiation in the world. Rad Phy Chem 78:222–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miller RB (2005) Electronic irradiation of foods: an introduction to the technology. Springer, New York, p 350Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mutluer B, Erkoc FU (1987) Effects of gamma irradiation on aflatoxins. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 185:398–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    National Academy of Science (2008) Radiation source use and replacement. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nayga RM, Woodward RM, Aiew W (2006) Willingness to pay for reduced risk of foodborne illness: a nonhypothetical field experiement. Can J of Agric Econ 54:461–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Patel UD, Govindarajan P, Dave PJ (1989) Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 by using the synergistic effect of hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:465–467Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Paterson R, Lima N (2010) How will climate change affect mycotoxins in food? Food Res Int 43:1902–1914. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2009.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pillai SD (2016) Introduction to electron-beam food irradiation. CEP Magazine. AIChE. NovemberGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pillai SD (2004) Food Irradiation. In: Bier RC, Pillai SD, Phillips TD, Ziprin RL (eds) Pre-harvest and post-harvest food safety: contemporary issues and future directions. Institute of Food Technologists/Iowa State Press, Ames, pp 375–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Praveen C, Dancho BA, Kingsley DH, Calci KR, Meade GK, Mena KD, Pillai SD (2013) Susceptibility of murine norovirus and hepatitis a virus to electron beam irradiation in oysters and quantifying the reduction in potential infection risks. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:3796–3801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sadecka J (2007) Irradiation of spices—a review. Czech J Food Sci 25(5):231–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sharma A, Ghanekar AS, Padwal-Desai SR (1984) Microbiological status and antifungal properties of irradiated spices. J Agric food Chem 32(5):1061–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shayanfar S, Pillai SD (2015) Future trends in electron beam technology for food processing. In: Pillai SD, Shayanfar S (eds) Electron beam pasteurization and complimentary food processing technologies Chapter 16. Woodhead publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shayanfar S, Mena K, Pillai SD (2016) Quantifying the reduction in potential infection risks from non-O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli in strawberries by low dose electron beam processing. Food Control. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.04.057 Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Smith JS, Pillai SD (2004) Irradiation and food safety. Scientific status summary. IFT, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sommers CH, X Fan (2006) Food irradiation research and technology. (Eds). IFT Press/Blackwell Publishing, p 317Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Suhaj M, Racova J, Polovka M, Brezova V (2006) Effect of γ-irradiation on antioxidant activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Food Chem 97:696–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Van Dyck PJ, Tobback P, Feyes M, van de Voorde H (1982) Sensitivity of aflatoxin B1 to ionizing radiation. Appl Environ Microbiol 43:1317–1319Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Center for Electron Beam Research, An IAEA Collaborating Centre for Electron Beam Technology, Graduate Program in Food Science & TechnologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations