Emerging Approaches in Synchrotron Studies of Materials from Cultural and Natural History Collections

Abstract

Synchrotrons have provided significant methods and instruments to study ancient materials from cultural and natural heritages. New ways to visualise (surfacic or volumic) morphologies are developed on the basis of elemental, density and refraction contrasts. They now apply to a wide range of materials, from historic artefacts to paleontological specimens. The tunability of synchrotron beams owing to the high flux and high spectral resolution of photon sources is at the origin of the main chemical speciation capabilities of synchrotron-based techniques. Although, until recently, photon-based speciation was mainly applicable to inorganic materials, novel developments based, for instance, on STXM and deep UV photoluminescence bring new opportunities to study speciation in organic and hybrid materials, such as soaps and organometallics, at a submicrometric spatial resolution over large fields of view. Structural methods are also continuously improved and increasingly applied to hierarchically structured materials for which organisation results either from biological or manufacturing processes. High-definition (spectral) imaging appears as the main driving force of the current trend for new synchrotron techniques for research on cultural and natural heritage materials.

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Abbreviations

CT:

Computed tomography

DUV:

Deep ultraviolet

EELS:

Electron energy loss spectroscopy

EPMA:

Electron probe micro-analysis

FF:

Full field

FIB:

Focused ion beam

FOV:

Field of view

FTIR:

Fourier-transform Infrared spectroscopy

Ga:

Gigaannum

Ma:

Megaannum

Myr:

Million year

NEXAFS:

Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (=XANES)

PIXE:

Proton induced X-ray emission

PL:

Photoluminescence

Pps:

Projected pixel (voxel) size on the sample plane

qsSAXSI:

Quantitative scanning SAXS imaging

ROI:

Region of interest

SAXS:

Small-angle X-ray scattering

SC:

Semi-conductor

SEM:

Scanning electron microscopy

SR:

Synchrotron radiation

STXM:

Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

TEM:

Transmission electron microscopy

Vis:

Visible

XANES:

X-ray absorption near edge structure

XAS:

X-ray absorption spectroscopy

XRD:

X-ray diffraction

XRF:

X-ray fluorescence

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Acknowledgments

The IPANEMA platform is jointly developed by CNRS, the French Ministry of Culture and Communication and MNHN, and benefits from a CPER grant (MENESR, Région Ile-de-France) [23]. IPANEMA and Synchrotron SOLEIL are supported by the Research Infrastructures activity IPERION CH of the Horizon2020 Programme of the EU (Grant Agreement No. 654028). Support from the ERC project PaleoNanoLife (P.I.: F. Robert), the PATRIMA LabEx and within the agreement between the MNHN and IPANEMA is acknowledged. LB and UB acknowledge support from the France–Stanford Center for Interdisciplinary Studies Program. Portions of this research were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL), a user facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The work performed on the 12.3.2 beamline was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the US Department of Energy, who operates ALS under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

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Bertrand, L., Bernard, S., Marone, F. et al. Emerging Approaches in Synchrotron Studies of Materials from Cultural and Natural History Collections. Top Curr Chem (Z) 374, 7 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41061-015-0003-1

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Keywords

  • Synchrotron
  • Palaeontology
  • Cultural heritage
  • Archaeometry
  • Imaging