Development of laboratory equipment to obtain powdered concrete samples to determine chlorides concentration for durability studies

  • Carlos Eduardo Tino Balestra
  • Gustavo Savaris
  • Marcos Vinicius Schlichting
  • Wilson Leobet
Research Article


The determination of chloride concentration in reinforced concrete structures present in marine environment is an important tool in the context of their service life, allowing the development of models capable of estimating the beginning of the bars corrosive process and, at the same time, the reduction of the load bearing capacity of the reinforced concrete structure. In general, the methods for collection of powder concrete samples from real structures are based on the execution of holes with a drill or from the direct grinding of the concrete surface, however, there is the possibility of contamination of samples between the execution of successive continuity of the holes. Thus, another possible method deals with the extraction of concrete cores from the structures and subsequent sectioning in the laboratory. At this point, sectioning procedures not allowing the grinding of layers smaller than 0.5 cm, and still may cause material loss due the rotation speed of the cutting discs. In this way, this work presents an equipment developed, for academic purposes, with the objective to perform the grinding of concrete layers with thickness of 2 mm, at an affordable cost, to obtain powder concrete samples in order to determine chlorides. The results showed that the equipment meets technical and economic aspects successfully and can be used in several world laboratories.


Chlorides Corrosion Concrete Durability 



The authors would like to thank Fernando Lee Foundation for the support during the works at Arvoredos Island.


  1. 1.
    Cairns J et al (2005) Mechanical properties of corrosion-damaged reinforcement. ACI Mater J 102:256–264Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Meira GR et al (2007) Chloride penetration into concrete structures in the marine atmosphere zone: relationship between deposition of chlorides on the wet candle and chlorides accumulated into concrete. Cem Concr Compos 29:667–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pape TM, Melchers RE (2012) Performance of 45-year-old corroded prestressed concrete beams. Struct Build 166:547–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Apostolopoulos CA, Demis S, Papadakis VG (2013) Chloride-induced corrosion of steel reinforcement: mechanical performance and pit depth analysis. Constr Build Mater 38:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rehman S, Al-Hadhrami LM (2013) Web-based national corrosion cost inventory system for Saudi Arabia. Anticorros Methods Mater 61:77–92Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ueda T, Takewaka K (2007) Performance-based standard specification for maintenance and repair of concrete structures in Japan. Struct Eng Int 4:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Medeiros-Junior RA, Lima MG, Medeiros MHF (2014) Service life of concrete structures considering the effects of temperature and relative humidity on chloride transport. Environ Dev Sustain 17:1103–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mehta PK, Monteiro PJM (2006) Concrete: microstructure, properties and materials. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Han SJ et al (2014) Degradation of flexural strength in reinforced concrete members caused by steel corrosion. Constr Build Mater 54:572–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Apostolopoulos CA (2009) The influence of corrosion and cross-section diameter on the mechanical properties of B500c steel. J Mater Eng Perform 18:190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    François R, Khan I, Dang VH (2013) Impact of corrosion on mechanical properties of steel embedded in 27-year-old corroded reinforced concrete beams. Mater Struct 46:889–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schweitzer PA (2010) Fundamentals of corrosion: mechanisms, causes and preventive methods. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhu W, François R (2014) Experimental investigation of the relationship between residual cross-section shapes and the ductility of corroded bars. Constr Build Mater 69:335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Balestra CET et al (2016) Corrosion degree effect on nominal and effective strengths of reinforcement naturally corroded. J Mater Civ Eng 28:04016103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Castro P, Trocónis De Rincon O, Pazini EJ (2001) Interpretation of chloride profile from concrete exposed to tropical marine environments. Cem Concr Res 31:529–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Trocónis De Rincón O et al (2004) Chloride profile in two marine structures: meaning and some predictions. Build Environ 39:1065–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Medeiros MHF et al (2013) Reinforced concrete in marine environment: effect of wetting and drying cycles, height and positioning in relation to the sea. Constr Build Mater 44:452–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Torres-Luque M et al (2014) Non-destructive methods for measuring chloride ingress into concrete: sate-of-the-art and future challenges. Constr Build Mater 68:68–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Recommendation. TC178-TMC (2013) Testing and modeling chloride penetration in concrete: methods for obtaining dust samples by means of grinding concrete in order to determine the chloride concentration profile. Mater Struct 46:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Andrade C, Sagrega JL, Sanjuán MA (2000) Several years study on chloride ion penetration into concrete exposed to Atlantic Ocean Water. In: 2nd International RILEM workshop on testing and modelling the chloride ingress into concrete. Proceedings PRO 19: 2nd International RILEM workshop. Rilem Publications, Paris, pp 121–134Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Otieno M, Beushausen H, Alexander M (2016) Chloride-induced corrosion of steel in cracked concrete. Part I: experimental studies under accelerated and natural marine environments. Cem Concr Res 79:373–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cheewaket T, Jaturapitakkul C, Chalee W (2010) Long term performance of chloride binding capacity in fly ash concrete in a marine environment. Constr Build Mater 24:1352–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Balestra CET (2017) Analysis of chloride profile obtained from real concrete structures present in different marine agressive zones. Doctoral Thesis. Aeronautics Institute of Technology (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Caldas LM (2000) Historical research about Arvoredo Island and Fernando Lee Foundation. Fernando Lee Foundation, Guarujá (in Portuguese) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringFederal Technological University of Paraná Campus ToledoToledoBrazil

Personalised recommendations