Skip to main content

Effect of Phytoremediation on Compression Characteristics of Silty Clayey Sand Contaminated with Crude Oil

Abstract

In the present study, the effects of phytoremediation using Ophiopogon japonicus and Platycladus orientalis on the compressibility of silty clayey sand contaminated with 3%, 5%, or 7% crude oil was examined over a period of 2 months. Phytoremediation led to a decrease in the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The scanning electron microscopy images showed that an increase in the crude oil content increased flocculation of the fine particles in the soil; however, phytoremediation decreased flocculation of the soil structure. The replacement of water by crude oil decreased the dielectric constant of the fluid in the void space, which decreased the thickness of the double-layer water. These changes caused the soil particles to move closer together and become more flocculated. The Atterberg limits of the contaminated soil increased after phytoremediation. A decrease in soil permeability was observed after phytoremediation in the permeability and consolidation tests. The compression index and coefficient of consolidation increased as the crude oil content and the contamination time period increased. The increase in the compression index at 30 and 60 days of phytoremediation was 6% and 18% less, respectively, than for the untreated samples. The increase in the coefficient of consolidation after phytoremediation also was 15% less than for the untreated samples. It could be concluded that phytoremediation decreased the negative effects of crude oil on the geotechnical properties of the soil over time. It also was effective in decreasing settlement of the soil contaminated with crude oil and decreased the coefficient of volume compressibility.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18

References

  1. 1.

    Nasr AM (2009) Experimental and theoretical studies for the behavior of strip footing on oil-contaminated sand. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 135:1814–1822

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Naeini SA, Shojaedin MM, Misaghian M (2019) Briefing: liquefaction potential of oil-contaminated silty sands. Proc Inst Civ Eng Geotech Eng 172(5):396–401

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Khosravi E, Ghasemzadeh H, Sabour MR, Yazdani H (2013) Geotechnical properties of gas oil-contaminated kaolinite. Eng Geol 166:11–16

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Ghadyani M, Hamidi A, Hatambeigi M (2019) Triaxial shear behaviour of oil contaminated clays. Eur J Environ Civ Eng 23:112–135

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Al-Sanad HA, Eid WK, Ismael NF (1995) Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand. J Geotech Eng 121:407–412

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Shin EC, Das BM (2000) Bearing capacity of unsaturated oil-contaminated sand. In: Proceeding of 10th international offshore and polar engineering conference. International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, USA

  7. 7.

    Singh SK, Srivastava RK, John S (2009) Studies on soil contamination due to used motor oil and its remediation. Can Geotech J 46:1077–1083

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hosseini A, Hajiani Boushehrian A (2019) Laboratory and numerical study of the behavior of circular footing resting on sandy soils contaminated with oil under cyclic loading. Scientia Iranica 26(6):3219–3232

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Jia YG, Wu Q, Meng XM, Yang XJ, Yang ZN, Zhang GC (2010) Case study on influences of oil contamination on geotechnical properties of coastal sediments in the Yellow River Delta. In: Chen Y, Zhan L, Tang X (eds) Advances in environmental geotechnics. Springer, Berlin, pp 767–771

  10. 10.

    Kermani M, Ebadi T (2012) The effect of oil contamination on the geotechnical properties of fine-grained soils. Soil Sediment Contam 21:655–671

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Oluwatuyi OE, Ojuri OO, Khoshghalb A (2020) Cement-lime stabilization of crude oil contaminated kaolin clay. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 12:160–167

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Khamehchiyan M, Charkhabi AH, Tajik M (2007) Effects of crude oil contamination on geotechnical properties of clayey and sandy soils. Eng Geol 89:220–229

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Al-Adili A, Alsoudany KY, Shakir A (2017) Investigation of crude oil pollution effect on stiffness characteristics of sandy and gypseous soil. Soil Mech Found Eng 54:276–282

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ahmed HUR, Abduljauwad SN (2017) Molecular-level simulations of oil-contaminated clays. Environ Geotech 6:528–542

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Mohammadi A, Ebadi T (2018) Effect of bentonite addition on geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated sandy soil. J Civ Eng Constr 7:153–162

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Soltani-Jigheh H, Molamahmood HV, Ebadi T, Soorki AA (2018) Effect of oil-degrading bacteria on geotechnical properties of crude oil-contaminated sand. Environ Eng Geosci 24:333–341

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Choura M, Salhi S, Cherif F (2009) Mechanical behaviour study of soil polluted by crude oil: case of Sidi El Itayem oilfield, Sfax, Tunisia. Environ Earth Sci 59:573–580

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Karkush MO, Abdulkareem ZA (2017) Investigation of the impacts of fuel oil on the geotechnical properties of cohesive soil. Eng J 21:127–137

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Chen H, Jiang Y, Zhang W, He X (2017) Experimental study of the stabilization effect of cement on diesel-contaminated soil. Q J Eng Geol Hydrog 50:199–205

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Cunningham SD, Anderson TA, Schwab AP, Hsu FC (1996) Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants. Adv Agron 56:55–114

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Miranda MFA, Freire MBGDS, Almeida BG, Freire AG, Freire FJ, Pessoa LGM (2018) Improvement of degraded physical attributes of a saline-sodic soil as influenced by phytoremediation and soil conditioners. Arch Agron Soil Sci 64:1207–1221

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Fazeli G, Karbassi A, Khoramnejadian S, Nasrabadi T (2019) Evaluation of urban soil pollution: a combined approach of toxic metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Int J Environ Res 13:801–811

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Wei J, Liu X, Zhang X, Chen X, Liu S, Chen L (2014) Rhizosphere effect of Scirpus triqueter on soil microbial structure during phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated wetland. Environ Technol 35:514–520

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Paisio CE, Agostini E, González PS (2019) Application of two bioassays as potential indicators of phenol phytoremediation efficiency by tobacco hairy roots, Environ Technol. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2019.1649471

  25. 25.

    Abdollahzadeh T, Niazi A, Moghadam A, Heydarian Z, Ghasemi-Fasaei R, Kaviani E, Pourdad N (2019) Phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil by Salicornia: from PSY activity to physiological and morphological communications. Environ Technol 40:2789–2801

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Barrutia O, Epelde L, García-Plazaola JI, Garbisu C, Becerril JM (2009) Phytoextraction potential of two Rumex acetosa L. accessions collected from metalliferous and non-metalliferous sites: effect of fertilization. Chemosphere 74:259–264

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Reddy KR, Chirakkara RA (2013) Green and sustainable remedial strategy for contaminated site: case study. Geotech Geol Eng 31:1653–1661

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Ruttens A, Mench M, Colpaert JV, Boisson J, Carleer R, Vangronsveld J (2006) Phytostabilization of a metal contaminated sandy soil. I: influence of compost and/or inorganic metal immobilizing soil amendments on phytotoxicity and plant availability of metals. Environ Pollut 144:524–532

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Mench M, Schwitzguébel JP, Schroeder P, Bert V, Gawronski S, Gupta S (2009) Assessment of successful experiments and limitations of phytotechnologies: contaminant uptake, detoxification and sequestration, and consequences for food safety. Environ Sci Pollut Res 16:876–900

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Nagendran R, Selvam A, Joseph K, Chiemchaisri C (2006) Phytoremediation and rehabilitation of municipal solid waste landfills and dumpsites: a brief review. Waste Manag 26:1357–1369

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Aprill W, Sims RC (1990) Evaluation of the use of prairie grasses for stimulating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon treatment in soil. Chemosphere 20:253–265

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Barac T, Weyens N, Oeyen L, Taghavi S, van der Lelie D, Dubin D, Spliet M, Vangronsveld J (2009) Field note: hydraulic containment of a BTEX plume using poplar trees. Int J Phytoremediat 11:416–424

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Fu D, Teng Y, Shen Y, Sun M, Tu C, Luo Y, Li Z, Christie P (2012) Dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and microbial activity in a field soil planted with perennial ryegrass. Front Environ Sci Eng 6:330–335

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    ASTM D422-07 (2007) Standard test method for particle size analysis of soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  35. 35.

    ASTM D4318-10 (2010) Standard test methods for liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index of soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  36. 36.

    ASTM D2487-11 (2011) Standard practice for classification of soils for engineering purposes (unified soil classification system). ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  37. 37.

    Tuncan A, Pamukcu S (1992) Geotechnical properties of petroleum and sludge contaminated marine sediments. In: The 2nd international offshore and polar engineering conference. International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, USA

  38. 38.

    Puri VK, Das BM, Cook EE, Shin EC (1994) Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand. In: Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents. ASTM International

  39. 39.

    Maisano M, Cappello T, Natalotto A, Vitale V, Parrino V, Giannetto A, Oliva S, Mancini G, Cappello S, Mauceri A, Fasulo S (2017) Effects of petrochemical contamination on caged marine mussels using a multi-biomarker approach: histological changes, neurotoxicity and hypoxic stress. Mar Environ Res 128:114–123

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Aiban SA (1998) The effect of temperature on the engineering properties of oil-contaminated sands. Environ Int 24:153–161

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Puri VK (2000) Geotechnical aspects of oil-contaminated sands. Soil Sediment Contam 9:359–374

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Ogboghodo IA, Iruaga EK, Osemwota IO, Chokor JU (2004) An assessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and growth of maize (Zea mays) using two crude types—Forcados light and Escravos light. Environ Monit Assess 96:143–152

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Moavenian MH, Yasrobi SS (2008) Volume change behavior of compacted clay due to organic liquids as permeant. Appl Clay Sci 39:60–71

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    ASTM D698-12 (2012) Standard test methods for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using standard effort. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  45. 45.

    ASTM D5084-03 (2003) Standard test methods for measurement of hydraulic conductivity of saturated porous materials using a flexible wall permeameter. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  46. 46.

    ASTM D2435-11 (2011) Standard test methods for one-dimensional consolidation properties of soils using incremental loading. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

  47. 47.

    US EPA (2007) Method 3550C ultrasonic extraction, United states environmental protection agency, SW-846 manual. U.S. Government printing office, Washington, DC

  48. 48.

    US EPA (1996) Method 8015B Nonhalogenated organics using GC/FID. United states environmental protection agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

  49. 49.

    Sari GL, Trihadiningrum Y, Ni’matuzahroh N (2018) Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in soil and surface water by public oil fields in Wonocolo Sub-district, Indonesia. J Ecol Eng 19:184–193

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Nero BF (2020) Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils with two plant species: Jatropha curcas and Vetiveria zizanioides at Ghana Manganese Company Ltd. Int J Phytoremediat 22:1–10

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Fatima K, Imran A, Amin I, Khan QM, Afzal M (2018) Successful phytoremediation of crude-oil contaminated soil at an oil exploration and production company by plants-bacterial synergism. Int J Phytoremediat 20:675–681

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Płociniczak T, Fic E, Pacwa-Płociniczak M, Pawlik M, Piotrowska-Seget Z (2017) Improvement of phytoremediation of an aged petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by Rhodococcus erythropolis CD 106 strain. Int J Phytoremediat 19:614–620

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Mitchell JK (1993) Fundamentals of soil behavior. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Rehman H, Abduljauwad SN, Akram T (2007) Geotechnical behavior of oil-contaminated fine-grained soils. Electron J Geotech Eng 12:1–12

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Izdebska-Mucha D, Trzciński J (2008) Effects of petroleum pollution on clay soil microstructure. Geologija 50:S68–S74

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Rajabi H, Sharifipour M (2019) Geotechnical properties of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: a comprehensive review. B Eng Geol Environ 78:3685–3717

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Karkush MO, Abdulkareem MS (2018) Impacts of petroleum fuel oil contamination on the geotechnical properties of fine-grained soils. Indian J Eng 15:228–237

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Nasehi SA, Uromeihy A, Nikudel MR, Morsali A (2016) Influence of gas oil contamination on geotechnical properties of fine and coarse-grained soils. Geotech Geol Eng 34:333–345

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Askarbioki MH, Kargaran Bafghi F, Mokhtari M, Khaleghi M (2019) Impact of gasoline contamination on mechanical behavior of sandy clay soil. J Min Environ 10:389–399

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Di Matteo L, Bigotti F, Ricco R (2011) Compressibility of kaolinitic clay contaminated by ethanol-gasoline blends. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 137:846–849

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Karkush MO, Al-Taher TAA (2017) Geotechnical evaluation of clayey soil contaminated with industrial wastewater. Arch Civ Eng 63:47–62

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Das BM (2013) Advanced soil mechanics. Taylor and Francis, New York

    Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Nazir AK (2011) Effect of motor oil contamination on geotechnical properties of over consolidated clay. Alex Eng J 50:331–335

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amir Hamidi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hamidi, A., Karimi, A.H. Effect of Phytoremediation on Compression Characteristics of Silty Clayey Sand Contaminated with Crude Oil. Int J Civ Eng 19, 973–995 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40999-021-00609-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sandy soil
  • Phytoremediation
  • Compression
  • Crude oil
  • Settlement