Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Response Characteristics of a Steel Fiber-Reinforced Porosity-Free Concrete Beam Under an Impact Load

  • 25 Accesses


The utilization of ultra-high-strength concrete offers a weight reduction of concrete structures and improvements in disaster protection performance. Recently, porosity-free concrete (PFC) having the world’s highest compressive strength of 400 MPa has been developed, and its basic mechanical properties were determined; however, its impact-resistant capacity is yet to be examined. In this study, investigation of the impact resistance behavior of PFC is performed using a weight dropping impact test on a fiber-reinforced PFC beam. Steel fiber-reinforced PFC is used for preventing brittle failure, and the full plastic moment of the PFC beam cross-section is determined based on material test results. Also, the estimation of maximum response deflection is attempted by a simple plastic analysis. It was demonstrated that the response deflection could be reduced by 30–50% by increasing the steel fiber mixing rate in the PFC beam from 1 to 2%. The proposed estimation method revealed that the response deflection of the PFC beam could be estimated with an accuracy of approximately 80% considering the calculated full plastic moment when the plastic hinge is clearly formed. In the future, to establish a design procedure for the impact-resistant capacity of protective structures from steel fiber-reinforced PFC, it is necessary to conduct experimental and numerical research focusing on ultimate strength, including statistical processing.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10


  1. 1.

    Shaikh FUA, Luhar S, Arel HS, Luhar I (2020) Performance evaluation of Ultrahigh performance fibre reinforced concrete—a review. Constr Build Mater 232:117–152

  2. 2.

    Nilforoush R, Nilsson M, Elfgren L (2017) Experimental evaluation of tensile behavior of single cast-in-place anchor bolts in plain and steel fibre reinforced normal- and high-strength concrete. Eng Struct 147:195–206

  3. 3.

    Mindess S, Chen L, Morgan DR (1994) Determination of the first-crack strength and flexural toughness of steel fiber-reinforced concrete. Adv Cem Based Mater 1(5):201–208

  4. 4.

    Nataraja MC, Dhang N, Gupta AP (2000) Toughness characterization of steel fiber reinforced concrete by JSCE approach. Cem Concr Res 30(4):593–597

  5. 5.

    Wu Z, Shi C et al (2016) Effects of steel fiber content and shape on mechanical properties of ultra high performance concrete. Constr Build Mater 103:8–14

  6. 6.

    Choumanidis D, Badogiannis E et al (2016) The effect of different fibres on the flexural behavior of concrete exposed to normal and elevated temperatures. Constr Build Mater 129:266–277

  7. 7.

    Yoo DY, Lee JH, Yoon YS (2013) Effect of fiber content on mechanical and fracture properties of ultra high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites. Compos Struct 106:742–753

  8. 8.

    Swamy RN, Mangat PS (1974) Influence of fiber geometry on the properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete. Cem Concr Res 4(3):451–465

  9. 9.

    Soroushian P, Bayasi Z (1991) Fiber-type effects on the performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete. ACI Mater J 88(2):129–134

  10. 10.

    Yazici S, Inan G, Tabak V (2007) Effect of aspect ratio and volume fraction of steel fiber on the mechanical properties of SFRC. Constr Build Mater 21(6):1250–1253

  11. 11.

    Dong JK, Naaman AE, EI-Tawil S (2008) Comparative flexural behavior of four fiber reinforced cementitious composites. Cem Concr Compos 30(10):917–928

  12. 12.

    Abaza OA, Hussein ZS (2014) Flexural behavior of flat-end steel-fiber-reinforced concrete. J Mater Civ Eng 26(8):4014034–4014041

  13. 13.

    Lee JH, Cho B, Choi E (2017) Flexural capacity of fiber reinforced concrete with a consideration of concrete strength and fiber content. Constr Build Mater 138:222–231

  14. 14.

    Lee JH (2017) Influence of concrete strength combined with fiber content in the residual flexural strengths of fiber reinforced concrete. Compos Struct 168:216–225

  15. 15.

    Lee JH, Cho B, Chio E, Kim YH (2016) Experimental study of the reinforcement effect of macro-type high strength polypropylene on the flexural capacity of concrete. Constr Build Mater 126:967–975

  16. 16.

    Uygunoglu T (2008) Investigation of microstructure and flexural behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete. Mater Struct 41:1441–1449

  17. 17.

    Swamy RN, Mangat PS (1974) A theory for the flexural strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete. Cem Concr Res 4(2):313–325

  18. 18.

    Alberti MG, Enfedaque A, Galvez JC (2017) Fibre reinforced concrete with a combination of polyolefin and steel-hooked fibres. Compos Struct 171:317–325

  19. 19.

    Alberti MG, Enfedaque A et al (2014) Polyolefin fiber-reinforced concrete enhanced with steel-hooked fibers in low proportions. Mater Des 60:57–65

  20. 20.

    Banthia N, Majdzadeh F, Wu J, Bindiganavile V (2014) Fiber synergy in hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HyFRC) in flexure and direct shear. Cem Concr Compos 48:91–97

  21. 21.

    Bhutta A, Borges PHR et al (2017) Flexural behavior of geopolymer composites reinforced with steel and polypropylene macro fibers. Cem Concr Compos 80:31–40

  22. 22.

    Pajak M (2016) Investigation on flexural properties of hybrid fibre reinforced selfcompacting concrete. Proc Eng 161:121–126

  23. 23.

    Pajak M, Ponikiewski T (2017) Experimental investigation on hybrid steel fibers reinforced self-compacting concrete under flexure. Proc Eng 193:218–225

  24. 24.

    Yap SP, Bu CH et al (2014) Flexural toughness characteristics of steel polypropylene hybrid fibre-reinforced oil palm shell concrete. Mater Des 57:652–659

  25. 25.

    Almusallam T, Ibrahim SM et al (2016) Analytical and experimental investigations on the fracture behavior of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete. Cem Concr Compos 74:201–217

  26. 26.

    Li B, Chi Y, Xu L, ShiY LC (2018) Experimental investigation on the flexural behavior of steel-polypropylene hybrid fiber reinforced concrete. Constr Build Mater 191(2018):80–94

  27. 27.

    Wang C, Yang C, Liu F, Wan C, Pu X (2012) Preparation of ultra-high performance concrete with common technology and materials. Cem Concr Compos 34(4):538–544

  28. 28.

    Koh K, Ryu G, Kang S, Park J, Kim S (2011) Shrinkage properties of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). Adv Sci Lett 4(3):948–952

  29. 29.

    Lagier F, Massicotte B, Charron JP (2016) Experimental investigation of bond stress distribution and bond strength in unconfined UHPFRC lap splices under direct tension. Cem Concr Compos 74:26–38

  30. 30.

    Barnett SJ, Lataste JF, Parry T, Millard SG, Soutsos MN (2010) Assessment of fibre orientation in ultra high performance fibre reinforced concrete and its effect on flexural strength. Mater Struct 43(7):1009–1023

  31. 31.

    Tam CM, Tam VW, Ng KM (2012) Assessing drying shrinkage and water permeability of reactive powder concrete produced in Hong Kong. Constr Build Mater 26(1):79–89

  32. 32.

    Thai DK, Kim SE (2015) Failure analysis of UHPFRC panels subjected to aircraft engine model impact. Eng Fail Anal 57:88–104

  33. 33.

    Saleem MA, Mirmiran A, Xia J, Mackie K (2011) Ultra-high-performance concrete bridge deck reinforced with high-strength steel. ACI Struct J 108(5):601

  34. 34.

    Graybeal BA (2008) Flexural behavior of an ultrahigh-performance concrete Igirder. J Bridge Eng 13(6):602–610

  35. 35.

    López Boadella I, López Gayarre F, Suárez González J, Gómez-Soberón JM, López-Colina Pérez C, Serrano López M, de Brito J (2019) The influence of granite cutting waste on the properties of ultra-high performance concrete. Materials 12:634. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040634

  36. 36.

    Japan Society of Civil Engineers (2006) Design and construction guidelines for ultra-high strength fiber reinforced concrete—draft. JSCE Guidelines for Concrete No.9.

  37. 37.

    Walraven J (2009) High performance concrete: a material with a large potential. J Adv Concr Technol 7(2):145–156

  38. 38.

    Uchida Y, Kunieda M, and Rokugo K (2014) FRCC: design and application in Japan. In: Proceedings of FRC 2014 Joint ACI-fib International Workshop, Fiber-reinforced concrete: from design to structural applications, pp 51–60

  39. 39.

    Tanaka Y, Musha H, Tanaka S, Ishida M (2010) Durability performance of UFC Sakata-Mirai Footbridge undersea environment. Proc Framcos 7:1648–1654

  40. 40.

    Kono K, Musha H, Kawaguchi T, Eriguchi A, Tanaka T, Kobayashi T, Ikeda M (2013) Durability study of the first PC bridge constructed with ultra high strength fiber reinforced concrete in Japan. Proc RILEM-fib-AFGC Int Symp Ultra-High Perform Fibre-Reinf Concr UHPFRC 2013:239–248

  41. 41.

    Musha H, Ohkuma H, Kitamura T (2013) Innovative UFC structures in Japan. Proc RILEM-fib-AFGC Int Symp Ultra-High Perform Fibre-Reinf Concr UHPFRC 2013:17–26

  42. 42.

    Mizukami J, Matsunaga Y (2016) Construction of D-Runway at Tokyo international airport. Jpn Geotech Soc Special Publ, pp 122–134

  43. 43.

    Sugano S, Kimura H, Shirai K (2007) Study of new RC structures using ultra-high-strength fiber-reinforced concrete (UFC)—the Challenge of applying 200 MPa UFC to earthquake resistant building structures. J Adv Conc Technol 5(2):133–147

  44. 44.

    Limpaninlachat P, Nakamura T, Kono K, Niwa J (2017) Shear strengthening performance of post-tensioned UFC panel on reinforced concrete beams. J Adv Conc Technol 15(9):558–573

  45. 45.

    Kono K, Mori K, Tada K, Tanaka T (2016) Development of the world's highest strength concrete and possibility of further performance improvement. Concr J 54(7):702–709 (in Japanese)

  46. 46.

    Kono K, Nakayama R, Tada K (2015) A new cement-hardened material that exhibits a compressive strength of 460 N/mm2 in conventional pour molding. Proc Sympos Dev Prestress Concr 24:545–550 (in Japanese)

  47. 47.

    Kono K, Nakayama R, Tada K, Tanaka T (2016) Manufacturing method of cement-based material which shows compressive strength of 450 N/mm2 or more and change of hardened structure. Ann Proc Concr Technol 38(1):1443–1448 (in Japanese)

  48. 48.

    Yanagida R, Kono K, Niwa J (2016) Mechanical properties of fiber reinforced concrete with close-packed matrix with compressive strength 400 N/mm2. Annu Proc Concr Technol 38(1):279–284 (in Japanese)

  49. 49.

    Fujikake K, Senga T, Ueda N, Ohno T, Katagiri M (2006) Effects of strain rate on tensile behavior of reactive powder concrete. J Adv Conc Techol 4(1):79–84

  50. 50.

    Fujikake K, Senga T, Ueda N, Ohno T, Katagiri M (2006) Nonlinear analysis for reactive powder concrete beams under rapid flexural loadings. J Adv Conc Technol 4(1):85–97

  51. 51.

    Fujikake K, Senga T, Ueda N, Ohno T, Katagiri M (2006) Study on impact response of reactive powder concrete beam and its analytical model. J Adv Conc Tech 4(1):99–108

  52. 52.

    Beppu M, Ogawa A, Takahashi J (2016) Impact resistant performance of fiber reinforced cementitious composite plates subjected to high velocity impact by a rigid projectile. J Jpn Soc Civ Eng Ser E2 (Mater Concr Struct) 70(2):180–193 (in Japanese)

  53. 53.

    Ueno H, Beppu M, Ogawa A (2017) A method for evaluating the local failure of short polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete plates subjected to high-velocity impact with a steel projectile. Int J Impact Eng 105:68–79

  54. 54.

    Japan society of the defense facility engineers (JSDFE) (2018) Assessment guideline for the local failure of structures subjected to impact actions (in Japanese)

  55. 55.

    Kurihashi Y, Kono K, Sone R, Komuro (2017) Impact behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams with compressive strength of 400 N/mm2. J Struct Eng 63A:1201–1209. https://doi.org/10.11532/structcivil.63A.1201(in Japanese)

  56. 56.

    Furnas CC (1931) Grading aggregates—I. mathematical relations for beds of broken solids of maximum density. Ind Eng Chem 23(9):1052–1058

  57. 57.

    Lia Y, Pimientab P, Pinoteaub N, Hai Tana K (2019) Effect of aggregate size and inclusion of polypropylene and steel fibers on explosive spalling and pore pressure in ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) at elevated temperature. Cem Concr Compos 99:62–71

  58. 58.

    Goldsmith W (2001) Impact: The Theory and Physical Behavior of Colliding Solids. Dover Publications; Annotated edition

  59. 59.

    Yin C, Min Y, Le H, Lihua X (2017) Finite element modeling of steel-polypropylene hybrid fiber reinforced concrete using modified concrete damaged plasticity. Eng Struct 148:23–35

Download references


In promoting this research, the undergraduate and graduate students in the Structural Mechanics Laboratory, Graduate School of Muroran Institute of Technology received a great deal of support in loading experiments, data arrangement, and so on. This support is gratefully acknowledged. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 19H02394. We would like to thank Editage (https://www.editage.com) for English language editing.

Author information

Correspondence to Yusuke Kurihashi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kurihashi, Y., Kono, K. & Komuro, M. Response Characteristics of a Steel Fiber-Reinforced Porosity-Free Concrete Beam Under an Impact Load. Int J Civ Eng (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40999-020-00501-y

Download citation


  • Porosity-free concrete
  • Steel fiber reinforcement
  • Steel fiber content
  • Impact loading test
  • Maximum response deflection