Advertisement

International Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 195–203 | Cite as

Development of a Device for Measuring Air–Water Flow Characteristics

  • Ziba Fazel
  • Masoome Fazelian
  • Hamed SarkardehEmail author
Research Paper

Abstract

Air–water flow is a complex and challenging subject in many engineering fields as well as hydraulic engineering; and discovery of its characteristics can help the engineers to predict and analyze a probable phenomenon. In the present paper, development of a device capable of measuring the flow velocity, air concentration, diameter and counts of bubbles in air–water flows is described. The heart of the present device is two resistive probes with a novel configuration. Being pressure and corrosion resistant and also having negligible resistivity in the flow are some of the unique features of the employed needles. Moreover, sampling frequency and time can be adjusted for the intended application by the user. In the present electronic board, maximum available sampling frequency is in the order of KHz, while the duration of sampling is not limited. The circuit design considers avoiding the polarization of the probe tip. Increasing the number of probes up to four which can operate simultaneously with no change in the electronic board is another advantage of the proposed device that can be useful for more complex flows. Different tests for verification of the device accuracy have been performed and good results were reported for measurements.

Keywords

Air–Water flows Three needle probe Flow velocity Air concentration Diameter and counts of bubbles 

References

  1. 1.
    Cartellier A, Achard JL (1991) Local phase detection probe in fluid two-phase flows. Rev Sci Instrum 62(2):279–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nazari O, Jabbari E, Sarkardeh H (2015) Dynamic pressure analysis at chute flip buckets of five dam model studies. Int J Civ Eng Trans A Civ Eng 13(1):45–54Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kazemi F, Khodashenas SR, Sarkardeh H (2016) Experimental study of pressure fluctuation in stilling basins. Int J Civ Eng Trans A Civ Eng 14(1):13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jalili MR, Zarrati AR (2004) Development and calibration of a resistivity probe for measurement of air concentration and bubble count in high-speed air-water flows. J Sci Iran 11(4):312–319Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Safavi Kh, Sarkardeh H, Azamathulla HMd (2008) Experimental Study of Flow Aeration in the Bottom Outlet Tunnel. Hydro 2008 Conference, India, pp 515–521Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li Sh, Zhang JM, Xu WL, Chen JG, Peng Y, Li JN, He XL (2016) Numerical and physical modeling of aeration flow field in high head dragon-tail tunnel. Int J Civ Eng Trans A Civ Eng 14(1)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pagliara S, Roshni T, Palermo M (2015) Energy dissipation over large-scale roughness for both transition and uniform flow conditions. Int J Civ Eng Trans A Civ Eng 13(3):341–346Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sarkardeh H, Zarrati AR, Roshan R (2010) Effect of intake head wall and trash rack on vortices. J Hydraul Res 48(1):108–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Amiri SM, Zarrati AR, Roshan R, Sarkardeh H (2011) Surface vortex prevention at power intakes by horizontal plates. Proc Inst Civ Eng Water Manag 164(4):193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sarkardeh H, Zarrati AR, Jabbari E, Roshan R (2012) Discussion of prediction of intake vortex risk by nearest neighbors modeling. J Hydraul Eng ASCE 137(6):701–705Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sarkardeh H, Jabbari E, Zarrati AR, Tavakkol S (2013) Velocity field in a reservoir in the presence of an air-core vortex. Proc Inst Civ Eng Water Manag 167(6):356–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jones OC, Delhaye JM (1976) Transient and statistical measurement techniques for two-phase flows: a critical review. Int J Multiph Flow 3:89–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cain P, Wood IR (1981) Instrumentation for aerated flow on spillways. J Hydraul Div ASCE 107(11):1407–1443Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zarrati AR, Hardwick JD (1994) Application of a needle probe in measuring local parameters in air-water flows. ASCE symposium on fundamentals and advancements in hydraulic measurements and experimentation, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    De Moura LF, Marvilet C (1997) Local measurement in two-phase flows using a resistivity double probe technique. J Braz Soc Mech Sci 19(4):458–473Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zarrati AR, Shahverdi MR, Samavati A (1998) Design of a needle probe for measurement of local parameters in gas-liquid flows. Amir Kabir J Sci Technol, 10(37):81–94Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jalili MR, Zarrati AR, Rajabi A (2002) Development of a one-needle resistivity probe for measurement of local void fraction and bubble count in air-water mixture. In: International Conference on Hydraulic Measurements and Experimental Methods, ASCE/IAHR, USAGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bachalo WD (1994) Experimental methods in multiphase flows. Int J Multiph Flow 20:261–295CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sandullah K, Zaidi SH, Hills JH (2001) A study of bubbly flow using resistivity probes in a novel configuration. J Chem Eng 83:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neal A, Bankoff SA (1963) A high resolution resistivity probe for determination of local void properties in gas–liquid flow. J Am Inst Chem Eng 9(4):490–494. doi: 10.1002/aic.690090415/abstract CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cummings PD, Chanson H (1997) Air entrainment in the developing flow region of plunging jets. Part 2: experimental. J Fluids Eng Trans ASME 3:89–116Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Serizawa A (1974) Fluid-dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow. Ph.D. Thesis, Kyoto University, JapanGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cain P (1978) measurements within self-aerated flow on a large spillway, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury Christchurch, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Herringe RA, Davis MR (1974) Detection of instantaneous phase change in gas-liquid mixtures. J Phys E Sci Instrum 7:807–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Herringe RA, Davis MR (1976) Structural development of gas–liquid mixture flows. J Fluid Mech 73(1):97–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cartellier A (1992) Simultaneous void fraction measurement, bubble velocity, and size estimate using a single optical probe in gas–liquid two-phase flows. Rev Sci Instrum 63(11):5442–5453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Da Silva MJ (2008) Impedance sensors for fast multiphase flow measurement and imaging, Ph.D Thesis, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Technische University DresdenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Iran University of Science and Technology 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringHakim Sabzevari UniversitySabzevarIran

Personalised recommendations