Skip to main content

An Improved Structure for Hybrid Stepper Motors to Increase the Torque Density

Abstract

Stepper motors are actuators used in a variety of devices, including robots and CNC machines. Hybrid stepper motors (HSMs) tend to be the most popular of all stepper motor types due to their high torque density. A new structure for HSMs is presented in this paper, which significantly improves torque density. This improvement is based on changes in the magnetic flux path in the stator. In conventional stepper motors, magnetic flux must pass a quarter of the stator to complete its path. But, in the new design, this route is reduced to a small section of the stator. Moreover, the used space in the motor is optimized. It means that the teeth in the rotor and stator are longer. The rotor diameter also has become bigger. Investigations proved these changes are dramatically effective in increasing motor performance. To assess these improvements, a conventional hybrid stepper motor with the same volume is chosen and modeled. Both of these two motors are simulated using Ansys Maxwell software. Comparing their results proves that the torque density in the new motor structure has increased by more than 200%.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21

References

  • Bendjedia M et al (2007) Sensorless control of hybrid stepper motor. In: 2007 European conference on power electronics and applications. IEEE

  • Butcher M et al (2013) Hybrid stepper motor electrical model extensions for use in intelligent drives. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 61(2):917–929

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hojati M, Baktash A (2021) Design and fabrication of a new hybrid stepper motor with significant improvements in torque density. Eng Sci Technol Int J

  • Hojati M, Baktash A (2022a) Investigation of torque and sensitivity analysis of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor. Iranian J Sci Technol. (It is under review)

  • Hojati M, Baktash AJPE (2022b) Hybrid stepper motor with two rows of teeth on a cup-shaped rotor and a two-part stator. Precis Eng 73:228–233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ionică I et al (2019) Numerical analysis of a hybrid stepper motor for the electromagnetic torque calculation. In: 2019 11th International symposium on advanced topics in electrical engineering (ATEE). IEEE

  • Jenkins M, Howe D, Birch TS (1990) An improved design procedure for hybrid stepper motors. IEEE Trans Magn 26(5):2535–2537

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jung D-S et al (2007) Optimization for improving static torque characteristic in permanent magnet stepping motor with claw poles. IEEE Trans Magn 43(4):1577–1580

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kang SG, Lieu DK (2005) Torque analysis of combined 2D FEM and lumped parameter method for a hybrid stepping motor. In: IEEE international conference on electric machines and drives, 2005. IEEE

  • Kavitha J, Umamaheswari BJS (2019) Analysis of a novel disc-type hybrid stepper motor with field circuit model. Sādhanā 44(5):112

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kosaka T, Matsui N (2000). Simple nonlinear magnetic analysis for three-phase hybrid stepping motors. In: Conference record of the 2000 IEEE industry applications conference. Thirty-Fifth IAS annual meeting and world conference on industrial applications of electrical energy (Cat. No. 00CH37129). IEEE

  • Le-Huy H, Brunelle P, Sybille G (2008) Design and implementation of a versatile stepper motor model for simulink’s SimPowerSystems. In: 2008 IEEE international symposium on industrial electronics. IEEE

  • Lim KC, Hong JP, Kim GT (2001) Characteristic analysis of 5-phase hybrid stepping motor considering the saturation effect. IEEE Trans Magn 37(5):3518–3521

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lin W, Zheng Z (2006) Simulation and experiment of sensorless direct torque control of hybrid stepping motor based on DSP. In: 2006 International conference on mechatronics and automation. IEEE

  • Lu B, Xu Y, Ma X (2016) Design and analysis of a novel stator-permanent-magnet hybrid stepping motor. IEEE Trans Appl Supercond 26(7):1–5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mariolo L et al (2021) Modeling of hybrid stepper motor finalized to the optimization of the holding torque. In: 2021 IEEE workshop on electrical machines design, control and diagnosis (WEMDCD). IEEE

  • Matsui N, Nakamura M, Kosaka T (1996) Instantaneous torque analysis of hybrid stepping motor. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 32(5):1176–1182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rao ES, Prasad PVN (2012) Torque analysis of permanent magnet hybrid stepper motor using finite element method for different design topologies. Int J Power Electron Drive Syst IJPEDS 2(1):107

    Google Scholar 

  • Stuebig C, Ponick B (2012) Comparison of calculation methods for hybrid stepping motors. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 48(6):2182–2189

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr. Behrooz Majidi and Dr. Nathan Jafarian for reviewing and giving comments to this paper.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohammadreza Hojati.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hojati, M., Baktash, A., Jabbari, A. et al. An Improved Structure for Hybrid Stepper Motors to Increase the Torque Density. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Electr Eng (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40998-022-00535-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40998-022-00535-z

Keywords

  • Actuator
  • Holding torque
  • Hybrid stepper motor
  • Torque analysis
  • Torque density