This paper presents differential voltage current conveyor transconductance amplifier (DVCCTA)-based proportional–derivative (PD), proportional–integral (PI) and proportional–integral–derivative controllers (PID) with electronic tunability. CMOS-based DVCCTA used in the proposed structure is more attractive for IC implementation since all the passive components are grounded. The proportional gain, the integral and derivative time constants can be independently controlled. This paper also presents PD, PI and PID controllers in a single unit using modified DVCCTA. One of the three controllers can be operated at a time by appropriate connection to the input terminals C1, C2 and C3. The analysis of theoretically proposed circuit has been simulated through PSPICE simulations using 0.25 µm Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company CMOS technology parameter.
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Shrivastava, P., Surendra, S., Ranjan, R.K. et al. PI, PD and PID Controllers Using Single DVCCTA. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Electr Eng 43, 673–685 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40998-019-00180-z
- Current-mode circuits
- Differential voltage current conveyor transconductance amplifier