Skip to main content

Cascaded Hybrid Multi-level Inverter for Selective Harmonics Elimination

Abstract

This paper aimed at the prospect of an optimized algorithm for Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) through a hybrid control mechanism using fmincon and Newton–Raphson iterative method. In search of minimizing the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), appropriate multi-level sequences and firing angles are used. This technique not only reduces the execution time but also improves the convergence rate. MATLAB simulations confirm that the algorithm is robust and the desired response is achieved within a few iterations for any range of modulation index. PSpice simulation verifies the successful removal of harmonics and confirms THD lies within limits specified by IEEE 519 standard. The implementation of this SHEPWM algorithm will improve the working of cascaded multi-level inverters by increasing their efficiency rate with respect to their speed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16

Abbreviations

SHE:

Selective Harmonics Elimination

INR:

Improved Newton–Raphson

PWM:

Pulse width modulation

PE:

Power electronics

PSO:

Particle swarm optimization

DE:

Differential evaluation

QP:

Quadratic programming

FFT:

Fast Fourier transform

NR:

Newton–Raphson

THD:

Total harmonics distortions

C-MLI:

Cascaded multilevel inverter

PV:

Photovoltaic

GA:

Genetic algorithm

MI:

Modulation index

SQP:

Sequential quadratic programming

PWL:

Piecewise linear

References

  • Abdelkrim T, Berkouk EM, Benamrane K (2012) Study and control of 5-level PWM rectifier-5-level NPC active power filter cascade using feedback control and redundant vectors. Turk J Electr Eng Comput Sci 20:655–677. https://doi.org/10.3906/elk-1012-931

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad A, Asghar M, Abdul S et al (2016) Impact of wide-spread use of uninterruptible power supplies on Pakistan’ s power system. Energy Policy 98:629–636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2016.09.039

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmadi D, Wang J (2009) Selective harmonic elimination for multilevel inverters with unbalanced DC inputs. In: 5th IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference VPPC’09, pp. 773–778. https://doi.org/10.1109/vppc.2009.5289771

  • Ahmadi D, Zou K, Li C et al (2011) A universal selective harmonic elimination method for high-power inverters. IEEE Trans Power Electron 26:2743–2752. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2011.2116042

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Othman AK, Abdelhamid TH (2009) Elimination of harmonics in multilevel inverters with non-equal DC sources using PSO. Energy Convers Manag 50:756–764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2008.09.047

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amini J (2014) An effortless space-vector-based modulation for N-level flying capacitor multilevel inverter with capacitor voltage balancing capability. IEEE Trans Power Electron 29:6188–6195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arani AAK, Zaferani HR, Sanjari MJ, Gharehpetian GB (2014) Using genetic algorithm and simulated annealing for 27-level PV inverter THD minimization. In: Smart grid conference, pp 1–6

  • Babaei E, Gowgani SS, Sabahi M (2015a) A new cascaded multilevel inverter with series and parallel connection ability of DC voltage sources. Turk J Electr Eng Comput Sci. https://doi.org/10.3906/elk-1210-106

    Google Scholar 

  • Babaei E, Laali S, Member S, Bayat Z (2015b) A single-phase cascaded multilevel inverter based on a new basic unit with reduced number of power switches. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 62:922–929

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Babu TS, Priya K, Maheswaran D et al (2015) Selective voltage harmonic elimination in PWM inverter using bacterial foraging algorithm. Swarm Evol Comput 20:74–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.swevo.2014.11.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Besanger Y, Caire R, Chilard O, Deschamps P (2013) Distribution state estimation performances with different state vectors. In: PowerTech (POWERTECH), 2013 IEEE Grenoble, pp 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1109/ptc.2013.6652134

  • Chandwani HB, Matnani MK (2012) A review of modulation techniques for hybrid multilevel inverter. In: Proceedings of the first international conference emergency technology trends in electronic system, communication networking, ET2ECN 2012. https://doi.org/10.1109/et2ecn.2012.6470069

  • Chiasson JN, Tolbert LM, McKenzie KJ, Du Z (2005) Elimination of harmonics in a multilevel converter using the theory of symmetric polynomials and resultants. IEEE Trans Control Syst Technol 13:216–223. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCST.2004.839556

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Javed MY, Faisal A, Ling Q et al (2016) A novel MPPT design using generalized pattern search for partial shading condition. Energy Build 133:59–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.09.054

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jeevabharathi T, Padmathilagam V (2012) Harmonic elimination of cascaded multilevel inverters using particle swarm optimization. Int Conf Comput Electron Electr Technol 2012:301–306. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCEET.2012.6203775

    Google Scholar 

  • Kato T (1999) Sequential homotopy-based computation of multiple solutions for selected harmonic elimination in PWM inverters. IEEE Trans Circ Syst I Fundam Theory Appl 46:586–593. https://doi.org/10.1109/81.762924

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liang TJ, O’Connell RM, Hoft RG (1997) Inverter harmonic reduction using Walsh function harmonic elimination method. IEEE Trans Power Electron 12:971–982. https://doi.org/10.1109/63.641495

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu Y, Hong H, Huang AQ (2009) Real-time calculation of switching angles minimizing THD for multilevel inverters with step modulation. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 56:285–293. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2008.918461

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Luis J, Rodriguez D, David L, et al (2014) Harmonic distortion optimization of multilevel PWM inverter using genetic algorithms

  • Massrur HR, Niknam T, Mardaneh M, Rajaei AH (2016) Harmonic elimination in multilevel inverters under unbalanced voltages and switching deviation using a new stochastic strategy. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 12:716–725. https://doi.org/10.1109/TII.2016.2529589

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mathworks (2016) Find minimum of constrained nonlinear multivariable function—MATLAB fmincon. https://www.mathworks.com/help/optim/ug/fmincon.html?s_tid=gn_loc_drop. Accessed 14 Dec 2016

  • Mohammadi HR, Akhavan A (2014) A new adaptive selective harmonic elimination method for cascaded multilevel inverters using evolutionary methods. In: 2014 IEEE 23rd international symposium on industrial electronics, pp 1484–1489

  • Murugan M, Balaraman P (2014) Selective harmonic elimination PWM method in two level inverter by differential evolution optimization technique, pp 1–6

  • Panda AK, Patnaik SS (2015) Analysis of cascaded multilevel inverters for active harmonic filtering in distribution networks. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 66:216–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.10.034

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Patel HS, Hoft RG (1973) Generalized techniques of harmonic elimination and voltage control in thyristor inverters: part I-harmonic elimination. IEEE Trans Ind Appl. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.1973.349908

    Google Scholar 

  • Reddy M, Gowrimanohar T (2012) Comparison of five level and seven level cascaded multilevel inverter based dstacom for compensation of harmonics and reactive power using instantaneous real-power theory. In: Proc-ICETEEEM 2012, international conference emerging trends in electrical engineering and energy management, pp 355–360. https://doi.org/10.1109/iceteeem.2012.6494507

  • Renu V, Scholar MT (2014) Optimal control of selective harmonic elimination in a grid-connected single-phase PV inverter. In: International conference on advance research in green energy, pp 265–271

  • Salam Z, Soon Yee S, Saleem Y (2013a) On the improved computational speed and convergence of the Newton Raphson iteration method for selective harmonics elimination PWM applied to cascaded multilevel inverter with equal and non-equal DC sources. COMPEL-Int J Comput Math Electr Electron Eng 32:901–922. https://doi.org/10.1108/03321641311305827

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  • Salam Z, Soon SY, Saleem Y (2013b) An improved Newton-Raphson iteration method to compute the selective harmonics elimination pulse width modulation angles for cascaded multilevel inverters with equal and nonequal DC sources. Comput Electr Eng 32(3):901–922

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  • Sun J, Beineke S, Grotstollen H (1996) Optimal PWM based on real-time solution of harmonic elimination equations. IEEE Trans Power Electron 11:612–621. https://doi.org/10.1109/63.506127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tai B, Gao C, Liu X, Lv J (2014) A voltage balancing controller with fuzzy logic strategy for neutral point clamped multilevel converter. In: 17th international conference on electrical machines and systems, pp 2490–2494

  • Tuteja A, Mahor A, Sirsat A (2013) A review on mitigation of harmonics in cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter using optimization techniques. Int J Emerg Technol Adv Eng 3:30–34

    Google Scholar 

  • Vijayakumar R, Devalalitha C (2014) selective harmonic elimination PWM method using two level inverter by differential evolution optimization technique, pp 3–8

  • Wang J, Ahmadi D (2010) A precise and practical harmonic elimination method for multilevel inverters. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 46:857–865. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2010.2041620

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang K, Zhang Q, Yuan R et al (2016) Selective harmonic elimination with Groebner bases and symmetric polynomials. IEEE Trans Power Electron 31:2742–2752. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2015.2447555

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao H, Jin T, Wang S, Sun L (2016) A real-time selective harmonic elimination based on a transient-free inner closed-loop control for cascaded multilevel inverters. IEEE Trans Power Electron 31:1000–1014. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2015.2413898

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou K, Yang Y, Blaabjerg F et al (2014) Selective harmonic control for power converters. Energy Convers Congr Expo. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2014.2336629

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Muhammad Yaqoob Javed.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rahman, H., Javed, M.Y., Saleem, Y. et al. Cascaded Hybrid Multi-level Inverter for Selective Harmonics Elimination. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Electr Eng 42, 135–148 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40998-018-0054-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40998-018-0054-8

Keywords

  • Cascaded multi-level inverters (CMI)
  • Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE)
  • fmincon
  • Newton–Raphson (NR)
  • Harmonics
  • MATLAB
  • PSpice