Analysis of Overturn of High-Speed Train with Various Nose Shapes Under Crosswind


Recently, overturning of high-speed train under blowing crosswind is under the focus of many transportation industries. In this study, the procedure of determination of critical wind velocity of overturn of ICE2 train model is introduced with numerical simulation. According to the simulation and the equilibrium of train, the overturn conditions are determined due to the train and wind velocity. The geometrical parameters of train nose shape are considered, and basic geometry is modified to generate seven new geometries. By comparing aerodynamic results of these eight nose shapes, influence of each parameter is reported on the overturn of train. Results show that, reduction in thickness of train nose or nose tip angle and increase in train nose length have more desirable effect on safety of train movement to prevent overturn. Finally, the aerodynamic results of shape type of train nose can be used by high-speed rail masters as a comparative option.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23


C F :

Aerodynamic force coefficient

C M :

Aerodynamic moment coefficient

d :

Characteristic length

F B :

Body force

f m :

Method factor

f Δ Q :

Unloading factor

f Δ Q aero :

Aerodynamic unloading factor

g :

Gravity acceleration

h c :

Characteristic height

h tr :

Train height

k :

Turbulence kinetic energy


Moment due to the lateral movement of the center of gravity of suspended masses

M la :

Moment due to uncompensated lateral acceleration

M m :

Restoring moment due to the vehicles masses

p :


S :

Cross-section area (characteristic area)

t :


U :

Flow speed

u :

X direction of wind speed vector component

v :

Y direction of wind speed vector component

v a :

Relative wind speed

v tr :

Train speed

v w :

Wind speed

w :

Z direction of wind speed vector component

y*, y + :

Non-dimensional wall distance

β :

Yaw angle (relative wind angle)

β w :

Wind blowing angle

ε :

Turbulence dissipation rate

ρ :



  1. Allain E, Paradot N (2014) Aerodynamics in train cross wind studies. Int J Aerodyn 4(1–2):10–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Baker CJ (1986) Train aerodynamic forces and moments from moving model experiments. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 24(3):227–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Baker CJ (1991a) Ground vehicles in high cross winds part II: unsteady aerodynamic forces. J Fluids Struct 5(1):91–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Baker CJ (1991b) Ground vehicles in high cross winds part III: the interaction of aerodynamic forces and the vehicle system. J Fluids Struct 5(2):221–241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Baker CJ, Robinson CG (1990) The assessment of wind tunnel testing techniques for ground vehicles in cross winds. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 33(1–2):429–438

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Baker CJ, Jones J, Lopez-Calleja F, Munday J (2004) Measurements of the cross wind forces on trains. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 92(7–8):547–563

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Barcala MA, Meseguer J (2007) An experimental study of the influence of parapets on the aerodynamic loads under cross wind on a two-dimensional model of a railway vehicle on a bridge. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part F J Rail Rapid Transit 221(4):487–494

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Chiu TW (1991) A two-dimensional second-order vortex panel method for the flow in a cross-wind over a train and other two-dimensional bluff bodies. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 37(1):43–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Chiu TW, Squire LC (1992) An experimental study of the flow over a train in a crosswind at large yaw angles up to 90. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 45(1):47–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Cooper RK (1981) The effect of cross-winds on trains. J Fluids Eng 103(1):170–178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Copley JM (1987) The three-dimensional flow around railway trains. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 26(1):21–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Diedrichs B (2003) On computational fluid dynamics modelling of crosswind effects for high-speed rolling stock. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part F J Rail Rapid Transit 217(3):203–226

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Diedrichs B (2008) Aerodynamic calculations of crosswind stability of a high-speed train using control volumes of arbitrary polyhedral shape. In: Proceedings of BBAA VI international colloquium on bluff bodies aerodynamics and applications, Milano, Italy

  14. Diedrichs B, Ekequist M, Stichel S, Tengstrand H (2004) Quasi-static modelling of wheel-rail reactions due to crosswind effects for various types of high-speed rolling stock. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part F J Rail Rapid Transit 218(2):133–148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. En14067-1 (2003) Railway applications—aerodynamics—part 1: symbols and units, in

  16. En14067-6 (2010) Railway applications—aerodynamics—part 6: requirements and test procedures for cross wind assessment, in

  17. Gaylard AP (1993) The application of computational fluid dynamics to railway aerodynamics. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part F J Rail Rapid Transit 207(2):133–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Guo W, Wang Y, Xia H, Lu S (2015) Wind tunnel test on aerodynamic effect of wind barriers on train-bridge system. Sci China Technol Sci 58(2):219–225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Hemida H, Baker C (2010) Large-eddy simulation of the flow around a freight wagon subjected to a crosswind. Comput Fluids 39(10):1944–1956

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hemida H, Krajnovic S (2006) Exploring the flow around a generic high-speed train under the influence of side winds using LES. In: Fourth international symposium on computational wind engineering, July 16–19 Yokohama, Japan

  21. Hemida H, Krajnović S (2009) Exploring flow structures around a simplified ICE2 train subjected to a 30 side wind using LES. Eng Appl Comput Fluid Mech 3(1):28–41

    Google Scholar 

  22. Hemida H, Krajnović S (2010) LES study of the influence of the nose shape and yaw angles on flow structures around trains. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 98(1):34–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Hemida H, Krajnovic S, Davidson L (2005) Large-eddy simulation of the flow around a simplified high speed train under the influence of a cross-wind. In: 17th AIAA computational fluid dynamics conference, p 5354


  25. Khier W, Breuer M, Durst F (2000) Flow structure around trains under side wind conditions: a numerical study. Comput Fluids 29(2):179–195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Krajnović S, Georgii J, Hemida H (2007) DES of the flow around a high-speed train under the influence of wind gusts. In: 7th international ERCOFTAC symposium on engineering turbulence modeling and measurements. IEEE, Limassol, Cyprus

  27. Krajnović S, Ringqvist P, Nakade K, Basara B (2012) Large eddy simulation of the flow around a simplified train moving through a crosswind flow. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 110:86–99

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Launder BE, Spalding DB (1983) The numerical computation of turbulent flows. In: Numerical prediction of flow, heat transfer, turbulence and combustion, pp 96–116

  29. Li T, Zhang JY, Zhang WH (2013) A numerical approach to the interaction between airflow and a high-speed train subjected to crosswind. J Zhejiang Univ Sci A 14(7):482–493

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Meteorological info from Iran Meteorological Organization on

  31. Orellano A, Schober M (2006) Aerodynamic performance of a typical high-speed train. WSEAS Trans Fluid Mech 1(5):379–386

    Google Scholar 

  32. Rocchi D, Schober M, Cheli F, Orellano A, Tomasini GISELLA (2009) Comparison of wind tunnel tests results on the ATM train. In: EUROMECH colloquium 509 “Vehicle Aerodynamics”—external aerodynamics of railway vehicles, trucks, buses and cars, pp 240–249

  33. Rolen C, Rung T, Wu D (2004) Computational modelling of cross-wind stability of high-speed trains. In: Proceedings of European congress on computational methods in applied sciences and engineering

  34. Shih TH, Liou WW, Shabbir A, Yang Z, Zhu J (1995) A new k–ϵ eddy viscosity model for high Reynolds number turbulent flows. Comput Fluids 24(3):227–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Suzuki M, Tanemoto K, Maeda T (2003) Aerodynamic characteristics of train/vehicles under cross winds. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 91(1–2):209–218

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Zhuang Y, Lu X (2015) Numerical investigation on the aerodynamics of a simplified high-speed train under crosswinds. Theor Appl Mech Lett 5(5):181–186

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohammad Reza Talaee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ezoji, R., Talaee, M.R. Analysis of Overturn of High-Speed Train with Various Nose Shapes Under Crosswind. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Mech Eng (2021).

Download citation


  • Train aerodynamics
  • Train overturn
  • Crosswind effects