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Experimental and analytical investigations of AlSi10Mg, stainless steel, Inconel 625 and Ti-6Al-4V porous materials printed via powder bed fusion

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This paper reports on experimental and analytical results showing the relationship between metal porous materials properties and laser parameters developed using a Powder Bed Fusion. We have 3D printed a series of porous materials coupons by varying laser parameters such as scan speed and laser power. This is shown to be a successful strategy for four different materials: AlSi10Mg, Stainless steel 316L, Inconel 625 and Ti-6Al-4V. The resulting porous material is characterized with measurements of the effective pore radius, permeability and the porosity to assess the performance. The experimental results lead to the definition of a process window of laser parameters that can be used to fabricate metal porous materials for each of the specified materials. Within this process window, we show that it is possible to obtain porous materials with pore radii ranging from 1.1 to 28.1 μm, porosity ranging from 10.4 to 42.4% and permeability ranging from 5.9 × 10–16 to 4.4 × 10–12 m2. This is solely achieved by varying laser parameters. We also describe models to predict porous material’s properties. Based on experimental results, we show that porosity can be controlled by varying laser parameters and, especially, applying appropriate energy density.

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A :


C :

Empirical geometrical parameter in KC model

E :

Energy density (J/mm3)

h :

Length from the top of sample (m)

K :

Permeability (m2)

K c :

Permeability of simplified KC model (m2)

K f :

Permeability of fractal model (m2)

K t :

Permeability of threshold KC model (m2)

l :

Length of sample (m)

l e :

Tortuous pass (m)

L :

Layer thickness (m)


Mass flow rate ((kg/m3)

p g :

Gas pressure (Pa)

p l :

Liquid pressure (Pa)

P :

Laser power (W)

R eff :

Effective pore radius (m)

R r :

Representative pore radius

S w :

Cross-sectional area of sample (m2)

T :

Temperature (K)

V :

Scanning velocity (m/s)

w :

Melting width (m)

ϵ :


θ :

Contact angle (°)

μ :

Viscousity (Pa s)

ρl :

Liquid density (kg/m3)

ρp :

Porous material density (kg/m3)

ρs :

Solid density (kg/m3)

σ :

Surface tension

τ :


R eff :

Effective pore radius (m)

R r :

Representative pore radius


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The research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004).

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Correspondence to Benjamin I. Furst.

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Gotoh, R., Furst, B.I., Roberts, S.N. et al. Experimental and analytical investigations of AlSi10Mg, stainless steel, Inconel 625 and Ti-6Al-4V porous materials printed via powder bed fusion. Prog Addit Manuf 7, 943–955 (2022).

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