Skip to main content


Log in

Composition Optimization and Strengthening Mechanism of High-Strength Composite Water-Soluble Salt Core for Foundry

  • Technical Paper
  • Published:
International Journal of Metalcasting Aims and scope Submit manuscript


This paper aims to improve difficult cleaning and high core requirements in castings with complex internal cavities. The mixed salt was composed of NaCl, Na2SO4, BaCl2, and ceramic reinforced powder Al2O3 was added as core material. A high strength water-soluble salt core was prepared by melting gravity casting. Besides, the performance characteristics of NaCl salt core, Na2SO4 salt core, binary NaCl+Na2SO4 salt core, ternary NaCl+Na2SO4+BaCl2, and composite salt core after the addition of Al2O3 powder are compared and analyzed. The results demonstrated that the ratio of ternary salt cores was NaCl: Na2SO4: BaCl2=6:4:1; with the addition of Al2O3 powder, the bending strength of salt cores reached 27.9 MPa, and the bending strength of salt cores increased to 38.5 MPa. The composite salt core has a better water solubility than the unit NaCl salt core. Moreover, the water solubility time of the salt core can be shortened from 15 to 2 min when the water temperature was 85 °C. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometer were used to analyze the microstructure and phase composition of salt cores. The composite salt core's energy during crack propagation is weakened by the deflection and passing through the composite phase, increasing the bending strength of the salt core.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. L. Cao, D. Liao, F. Sun et al., Prediction of gas entrapment defects during zinc alloy high-pressure die casting based on gas-liquid multiphase flow model. Int. J. Adv. Manuf Technol. 94(1), 807–815 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. X. Dong, H. Yang, X. Zhu et al., High strength and ductility aluminium alloy processed by high pressure die casting. J. Alloys Compd. 773, 86–96 (2018).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. S.M. Dobosz, P. Jelinek, K. Major-Gabrys, Development tendencies of moulding and core sands. China Foundry 8(4), 438–446 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. H. Wu, D. Li, X. Chen et al., Rapid casting of turbine blades with abnormal film cooling holes using integral ceramic casting molds. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 50(1–4), 13–19 (2010).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. A. Fortini, M. Merlin, G. Raminella, A comparative analysis on organic and inorganic core binders for a gravity diecasting Al alloy component. Inter Metalcast (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. H.I. Kurt, I.H. Guzelbey, S. Salman, An experimental study of investigating the relationships between structures and properties of al alloys included with high Mg and high Ti. Int. J. Mater. Prod. Technol. 56(3), 271–283 (2018).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. K. Oikawa, Mechanical properties of mixed salt core made by die casting machine. J. Jpn. Foundry Eng. Soc. 81(5), 232–237 (2009)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. P. Jelínek, E. Adámková, F. Mikšovský et al., Advances in technology of soluble cores for die castings. Arch. Foundry Eng. 15(2), 29–34 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. B. Fuchs, H. Eibisch, C. Körner, Core viability simulation for salt core technology in high-pressure die casting. Int. J. Metalcast. 7(3), 39–45 (2013).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. M. Merchán et al., Research on coatings and infiltration to strengthen ceramic lost cores used in high-pressure die casting processes. Int. J. Metalcast. 13(3), 597–603 (2019).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. P. Jelínek, E. Adámková, Lost cores for high-pressure die casting. Arch. Foundry Eng. 14(2), 101–104 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. J. Yang, Yu. Juanli, Y. Huang, Recent developments in gelcasting of ceramics. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 31(14), 2569–2591 (2011).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. W. Jiang, J. Dong, L. Lou et al., Preparation and properties of a novel water soluble core material. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 270–275 (2010).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. J. Beňo, E. Adámková, F. Mikšovský, Development of composite salt cores for foundry applications. Materiali Tehnologije 49(4), 619–623 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. P. Jiang, F. Liu, Z. Fan et al., Performance of water-soluble composite sulfate sand core for magnesium alloy castings. Arch. Civ. Mech. Eng. 16(3), 494–502 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. R. Huang, B. Zhang, Study on the composition and properties of salt cores for zinc alloy die casting. Int. J. Metalcast. 11(3), 440–447 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. J. Yaokawa, D. Miura, K. Anzai et al., Strength of salt core composed of alkali carbonate and alkali chloride mixtures made by casting technique. Mater. Trans. 48(5), 1034–1041 (2007).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Z.L. Lu, Y.X. Fan, K. Miao et al., Effects of adding aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide fibers on ceramic molds for casting hollow turbine blades. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 72(5–8), 873–880 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. J. Yaokawa, K. Anzai, Y. Yamada et al., Castability and strength of potassium chloride-ceramic composite salt cores. J. Jpn. Foundry Eng. Soc. 76(10), 823–829 (2004)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. F. Liu, S. Tu, X. Gong et al., Comparative study on performance and microstructure of composite water-soluble salt core material for manufacturing hollow zinc alloy castings. Mater. Chem. Phys. 252, 123257 (2020).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. X. Gong, W. Jiang, F. Liu et al., Effects of glass fiber size and content on microstructures and properties of KNO3-based water-soluble salt core for high pressure die casting. Inter Metalcast 15, 520–529 (2021).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Tu. Suo, F. Liu, G. Li et al., Fabrication and characterization of high-strength water-soluble composite salt core for zinc alloy die castings. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 95(1), 505–512 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. C. Cantas, B. Baksan, Effects of composition on the physical properties of water-soluble salt cores. Int. J. Metalcast. 6, 1–13 (2020).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Wei-hua Liu.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, Xy., Liu, Wh., Wang, Xt. et al. Composition Optimization and Strengthening Mechanism of High-Strength Composite Water-Soluble Salt Core for Foundry. Inter Metalcast 16, 1809–1816 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: