Characterization and Properties of Ceramic Shells in Investment Casting Process

Abstract

Investment casting is an effective way to produce very thin and most complex components with very high-dimensional accuracy and surface finish. A wax pattern is repeatedly dipped into ceramic slurry, and coarse stucco is sprinkled over it to develop a ceramic shell. Very fine ingredients are used to achieve smooth internal surface in the ceramic shell. These fine ingredients of the inner coat reduce the shell permeability, which lead to porosity defects on the cast part. In the present work, an attempt is made to enhance the permeability of ceramic shell by mixing fine needle coke and coarse needle coke powders to inner and outer coat slurries, respectively. After firing, fine needle coke and coarse needle coke got burnt and left some microspores and macrospores in the inner and outer layers of the shell, respectively. These pores improved the shell permeability to a considerable extent. Modified ceramic slurry with needle coke offered higher slurry retention rate as compared to the conventional slurry. Modified shell also possesses sufficient flexural strength and fair inner surface roughness. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) is used to examine the microstructure of conventional and modified shells, and it is found that some pores are developed at the inner and outer layers of the modified shell, which lead to increment in permeability.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13

References

  1. 1.

    S. Pattnaik, D.B. Karunakar, P.K. Jha, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 212(11), 2332–2348 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    O. Bemblage, D.B. Karunakar, in Proceedings of the world Congress on Engineering, London, U.K., (2011)

  3. 3.

    A.S. Sabau, S. Viswanathan, Mater. Sci. Eng. 362(1–2), 125–134 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    V.F Okhuysen, K. Padmanabhan, R.C. Voigt, in Investment Casting Institute: 46th Annual Technical Meeting, Orlando, Florida. (1998)

  5. 5.

    P.R. Johnson, E.S. Lassow, U.S. Patent. 4,966,225 (1990)

  6. 6.

    D. Liao, Z. Fan, W. Jiang, E. Shen, D. Liu, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 211(9), 1465–1470 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    S. Jones, C. Yuan, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 135(2–3), 258–265 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    C. Yuan, S. Jones, S. Blackburn, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 25(7), 1081–1087 (2005)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    R. Doles, D. Viers, Nalco Company LLC, U.S. Patent 10,942,451, (2006)

  10. 10.

    S. Amira, D. Dube, R. Tremblay, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 211(8), 1336–1340 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    B.S. Sidhu, P. Kumar, B.K. Mishra, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 17(4), 489–498 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    F. Wang, F. Li, B. He, B. Sun, Ceram. Int. 40(1), 479–486 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    W. Everhart, S. Lekakh, V. Richards, J. Chen, H. Li, K. Chandrashekhara, Int. J. Metalcasting 7(1), 21–27 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    M. Xu, S.N. Lekakh, V.L. Richards, Int. J. Metalcasting 10(3), 329–337 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    J. Bundy, S. Viswanathan, Int. J. Metalcasting 3(1), 27–37 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Y.G. Jung, E. Tumenbayar, H.H. Choi, H.Y. Park, E.H. Kim, J. Zhang, Ceram. Int. 44(2), 2223–2230 (2018)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Y. Li, X. Liu, K. Lű, X. Du, Int. J. Metalcasting (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-019-00323-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Z. Li, X. Liu, K. Lv, Int. J. Metalcasting (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-019-00362-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    C.W. Park, S. Yoon, S.M. Oh, Carbon 38(9), 1261–1269 (2000)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    H.G. Kang, J.K. Park, B.S. Han, H. Lee, J. Power Sources 153(1), 170–173 (2006)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to D. Benny Karunakar.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kumar, S., Karunakar, D.B. Characterization and Properties of Ceramic Shells in Investment Casting Process. Inter Metalcast 15, 98–107 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40962-020-00421-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • investment casting process
  • needle coke
  • hot permeability
  • plate weight test
  • flexural strength
  • surface roughness
  • microstructure