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Feasibility of US Foundry Supply Chain Consumables for Three-Dimensional Sand Printing


The purpose of this study was to assess the performance characteristics of commercially available US foundry consumables for use in three-dimensional sand printers. The silica sands selected were 57 grain fineness number (GFN) and 70 GFN. These sands were a high-purity round grain silica and had low trace contaminates, to reduce any possible influence from contaminates. The furan resin system was selected since it is the most widely utilized resin system for 3D printed sand in the USA. The furan resin system was from a domestic US foundry supplier. The printed samples were traditional tensile specimen and rectangle samples for the determination of density. The samples were examined for the following properties: tensile strength, loss on ignition, density, scratch hardness, and permeability. The results of this investigation confirmed that the tested domestic resin system and silica sands matched the original equipment manufacturer performance properties.

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This paper is small portion of the master thesis topic “Sand distribution effect on three dimensional printed sand properties” completed on May 2018 at University of Northern Iowa. For additional data, tables, and discussion, access the full thesis at

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Correspondence to K. Woods.

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This paper is an invited submission to IJMC selected from presentations at the 73rd World Foundry Congress, held September 23–27, 2018, in Krakow, Poland, and has been expanded from the original presentation.

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Woods, K., Giese, S. & Trikha, S. Feasibility of US Foundry Supply Chain Consumables for Three-Dimensional Sand Printing. Inter Metalcast 13, 500–503 (2019).

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  • three-dimensional printed sand
  • silica
  • furan
  • tensile strength
  • scratch hardness
  • printed density