Skip to main content

Revisiting the Definition of Anumiti


In Tarkasaṁgraha (TS), Annaṁbhaṭṭa defines inferential cognition (anumiti) as that cognition which results from parāmarśa. In his own commentary on TS, namely Tarkasaṁgraha-dīpikā (TSD), Annaṁbhaṭṭa shows an over-coverage of the TS definition of anumiti in ‘perception after doubt.’ And then in TSD, he moves on to remove the over-coverage by qualifying the definition (of anumiti) with pakṣatā. In this article, we will raise an objection against the strategy Annaṁbhaṭṭa chooses to remove the above-mentioned over-coverage. We will argue that qualifying the definition (of anumiti) with pakṣatā does not remove the over-coverage in question. Following that an alleged solution to the over-coverage will be presented, and subsequently, we will show why the alleged solution is also flawed. Next, we will return again to defend Annaṁbhaṭṭa’s strategy of eliminating the over-coverage. Despite the defense, eventually, it will be suggested that qualifying the definition of anumiti with pakṣatā does not remove the over-coverage. Hopefully, this article will bring to light one controversial aspect of the definition of anumiti (as rendered in TS and TSD) which perhaps remains unnoticed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Bhaṭṭacārya, G. (1976). Translation and elucidation of ‘Tarkasaṁgraha-dīpikā on Tarkasaṁgraha.’ Progressive Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhaṭṭacārya, P. (1970). Muktāvali-saṁgraha on Nyāya-siddhānta-muktāvalī by Viśvanātha Pañcānana. Mahabodhi Book Agency.

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The writing of this article is not funded by any institution.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Arka Pratim Mukhoty.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mukhoty, A.P. Revisiting the Definition of Anumiti. J. Indian Counc. Philos. Res. 40, 173–182 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: