Study of crack propagation in concrete under multiple loading rates by acoustic emission

Original Article
  • 95 Downloads

Abstract

It is of great importance to investigate the effect of multiple loading rates on the crack propagation of brittle material such as concrete using acoustic emission because engineering structures are subjected to multiple loading conditions. Although material behaviour under single loading mode has been extensively studied, very limited research has been conducted to investigate the performance of brittle materials subjected to varying loading conditions. This paper presents an experimental study of the effects of single and multiple strain rates on cement mortar samples using acoustic emission. A total number of 81 concrete specimens were tested, in this 28 samples were tested in constant strain rate, whereas rest 53 samples were tested in multiple loading rates. Axial strain, lateral strain and acoustic emission counts were recorded continuously until the specimens had failed. The results showed that concrete behaves differently under multiple loading rates. Acoustic emission was in close agreement with the crack propagation and damage of concrete samples.

Keywords

Concrete Acoustic emission Cracks propagation Single strain Multiple strain rates 

List of symbols

ε

Strain

AE

Acoustic emission

ωAB

The acoustic emission cumulative damage parameter

fc

Crack damage threshold

σ

Axial stress

N

Accumulated number of AE

C

Integration constant

a, b, m and B

Empirical constants

D

Damage at the ultimate strength

D0

Initial damage

Dc

Damage at ultimate strain

A0

Threshold amplitude of the measuring system

E

Young’s modulus of a damaged material

E*

Young’s modulus of an intact material

D

Damage at the ultimate strength

SR1

Strain rate 1

SR2

Strain rate 2

w

Damage parameter

References

  1. Bazant ZP, Planas J (1998) Fracture mechanics and size effect in concrete and other quasibrittle materials. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Beattie AG (1983) Acoustic emission, principles and instrumentation. J Acoust Emiss 2:95–128Google Scholar
  3. Bischoff PH, Perry SH (1991) Compressive behavior of concrete at high strain rates. Mater Struct 24:425–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eberhardt E, Stead D, Stimpson B (1999) Quantifying progressive pre-peak brittle fracture damage in rock during uniaxial compression. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 36:361–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. El Echary H, Mirmiran A (1998) Acoustic emission of retrofitted fibber-wrapped columns. SPIE 3400:106–117Google Scholar
  6. Jones PG, Richart FE (1936) The effect of testing speed on strength and elastic properties of concrete. Proc Am Soc Test Mater 36(2):380–392Google Scholar
  7. Karihaloo BL (1995) Fracture mechanics and structural concrete. Longman Scientific and Technical, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Khandelwal M, Ranjith PG (2013) Behaviour of brittle material in multiple loading rates under uniaxial compression. Geotech Geol Eng 31(4):1305–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Khandelwal M, Ranjith PG, Pan Z, Sanjayan JG (2013) Effect of strain rate on strength properties of low-calcium fly-ash based geopolymer mortar under dry condition. Arab J Geosci 6(7):2383–2389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kipp ME, Grady DE, Chen EP (1980) Strain-rate dependent fracture initiation. Int J Fract 16:471–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Komlos R (1964) Factors affecting the stress–strain relation of concrete in uniaxial tension. ACI J 66(2):111–114Google Scholar
  12. Li X, Feng Z, Han G, Elsworth D, Marone C, Saffer D, Cheon DS (2016) Breakdown pressure and fracture surface morphology of hydraulic fracturing in shale with H2O, CO2 and N2. Geomech Geophys Geo-energ Geo-resour 2(2):63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ohtsu M, Watanabe H (2001) Quantitative damage estimation of concrete by acoustic emission. Constr Build Mater 15(5–6):217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ranjith PG, Jasinge D, Song JY, Choi SK (2008) A study of the effect of strain rate and moisture content on mechanical properties of concrete: Use of acoustic emission. Mechan Mater J 40(6):453–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shah SP (1983) Constitutive relations of concrete subjected to a varying strain rate. Proceedings of the symposium the interaction of nonnuclear munitions with structures, US Air Force Academy, Colorado, 81–84Google Scholar
  16. Shah SP, Swartz SE, Ouyang C (1995) Fracture mechanics of concrete: applications of fracture mechanics to concrete, rock, and other quasi-brittle materials. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Singh B, Ranjith PG, Chandrasekharam D, Viete D, Singh HK, Lashin A, Al Arifi N (2015) Thermo-mechanical properties of Bundelkhand granite near Jhansi, India. Geomech Geophys Geo-energ Geo-resour 1(1):35–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Uomoto T (1987) Application of acoustic emission to the field of concrete engineering. J Acoust Emiss 6:137–144Google Scholar
  19. Van-Mier JGM (1997) Fracture processes of concrete. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Watanabe K, Niwa J, Iwanami M, Yokota H (2003) Localized failure of concrete in compression identified by AE method. Constr Build Mater 18(3):189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Weerheijm J, Reinhardt HW (1989) Modeling of concrete fracture under dynamic tensile loading. In: Shah SP, Swartz SE, Barr B (eds) Proceedings, symposium on fracture of concrete and rock: recent developments. Elsevier Applied Science, Cardiff, pp 721–728Google Scholar
  22. Yang SQ, Xu P, Xu T (2015) Nonlinear visco-elastic and accelerating creep model for coal under conventional triaxial compression. Geomech Geophys Geo-energ Geo-resour 1(3):109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhao YS, Wan ZJ, Feng ZJ, Xu ZH, Liang WG (2017) Evolution of mechanical properties of granite at high temperature and high pressure. Geomech Geophys Geo-energ Geo-resour 3(2):199–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science and TechnologyFederation University AustraliaBallaratAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations