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Table 9 Measured and calculated properties of the selected (pure) glasses (in bold), and reference glasses of similar composition

From: Investigating the flexural strength of recycled cast glass

Glass type Name Composition (wt%)
   \(\hbox {SiO}_{2}\) \(\hbox {B}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) \(\hbox {Na}_{2}\hbox {O}\) \(\hbox {K}_{2}\hbox {O}\) CaO MgO \(\hbox {Al}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) PbO \(\hbox {Fe}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) \(\hbox {Sb}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) ZnO BaO SrO Source
Soda lime silica Standard float 70–74   12–16 0–0.5 8–13 0–5 0–2   0.01–1.5      [1]
  PPG Starphire (low iron) 74.6   13.3   8.9 3 0.04        [5]
  FT Float 75.4   12.4   7.6 4 0.4   0.09      [5]
  AGC blue 73.1   12.8   8.1 4 0.9   0.76      [5]
Modified Soda Lime Poesia glass 72.1 2.5 15.9 1.9 6.1 0.06 0.3    0.9     [5, 8]
Borosilicate Corning 7740 Pyrex 80.6 13 4    2.3        [9]
  Schott DURAN 81 13 4    2        [11]
C-Glass Johns Manville 753 C-glass fibers 63.5 5.5 14.6 1 6 3 5.5   0.1      [14]
  Wertheim glass 63.8 5.5 11.8 3.2 6.4 3.7 5.2   0.06    0.08   [5, 14]
SrO/BaO Silicate Corning 9068 63.2   7.1 8.8 1.8 0.9 2 2.3   0.4   2.4 10 [17]
  Philips CRT panel 61.6   7.2 6.8 1.1 0.3 2.3   0.1    8 8 [5]
Potash-lead-silicate Corning 0120 55 3 4 9    2 27       [18]
  Leerdam glass 57.7   3 9     28.7   0.8 0.6    [5]
Glass type Name Annealing point \(10^{13}\,\hbox {dPa}\,\hbox {s}\) (\(^{\circ }\hbox {C}\)) Density (\(\hbox {g}/\hbox {cm}^{3}\)) Poisson’s ratio Knoop Hardness KHN100 Molar volume \(\hbox {V}_{\mathrm{m}}\) (\(\hbox {cm}^{3}/\hbox {mol}\)), calculated APF calculated based on Pauling’s ionic radii \(\hbox {G}_{\mathrm{t}}\) Total Dissociation energy (\(\hbox {kJ}/\hbox {cm}^{3})\), calculated\(^\mathrm{b}\) E (GPa), calculated\(\hat{\,}\) E (GPa) from literature E (GPa) from LVDT measurement\(\hat{\,\,}\hat{\,\,}\) E (GPa) from DIC measurement\(\hat{\,\,}\hat{\,\,}\hat{\,\,}\) Average Flexural Strength (2nd 4-PB test) (MPa)
Soda lime silica Standard float 525–545 [3] 2.480–2.520 [1] 0.22–0.23 [1] 550 [4]      70–75 [2]    
  PPG Starphire (low iron) 547 [4] 2.510 [4] 0.22 [4] 448 [4] 23.55 0.5492 64.03 70.33 73.1 [4]    
  FT Float 553 [6] 2.466 [7]    23.92 0.5413 64.84 70.19   59.3 72.7 43.71
  AGC blue 550 [6] 2.492 [7]    23.81 0.5436 64.87 70.52   62.3 76.5 62.9
Modified Soda Lime Poesia glass \(\approx 520\) [6] 2.486 [7]    24.65 0.5471 61.84 (IV)\(^\mathrm{c}\) 67.67 (IV)\(^\mathrm{c}\)   61.1 75.8 66.5
Borosilicate Corning 7740 Pyrex 560 [10] 2.230 [10] 0.20 [10] 418 [10]      64 [10]    
  Schott DURAN 560 [12] 2.230 [11] 0.20 [11] 480 [13] 27.53 0.5383 64.13 (\(\hbox {B}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) 66% III, 34% IV) 69.04 (\(\hbox {B}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) 66% III, 34% IV) 63 [11] 52.4 66.8 42.45
C-Glass Johns Manville 753 C-glass fibers 527 [14] 2.520 [16] 0.27\(^\mathrm{a}\) [15]    0.5586 66.01 (IV)\(^\mathrm{c}\) 73.74 (IV)\(^\mathrm{c}\) 68.9\(^\mathrm{a}\) [15]
  Wertheim glass 550 [6] 2.502 [7]    24.56 0.5555 66.38 (IV)\(^\mathrm{c}\) 73.75 (IV)\(^\mathrm{c}\)   63.6 79 54.98
SrO/BaO Silicate Corning 9068 503 [17] 2.696 [16]     0.5456 61.00 66.56 69.6 [14]
  Philips CRT panel 530 [6] 2.766 [7]    25.24 0.55 62.22 68.20   58 73.5 51.19
Potash-Lead-Silicate Corning 0120 435 [10] 3.050 [10] 0.22 [10] 382 [10]   0.5484 60.17 (IV)\(^\mathrm{c}\) 65.99 (IV)\(^\mathrm{c}\) 60 [10]
  Leerdam glass 465 [6] 3.031 [7]    26.5 0.5288 58.35 61.71   49.8 64.9 35.29
  1. Sources
  2. [1] Quinn and Swab (2017)
  3. [2] Shelby (2005)
  4. [3] Martienssen and Warlimont (2005)
  5. [4] Specialty Glass Products
  6. [5] XRF measurements conducted by Ruud Hendrikx
  7. [6] Calculated using viscosity model by Fluegel (2007a)
  8. [7] Calculated using density model by Fluegel (2007b)
  9. [8] Personal correspondance with Poesia
  10. [9] Friedrich & Dimmock Inc.
  11. [10] Corning (1979)
  12. [11] Schott (2015a, (2015b)
  13. [12] Schott (2017)
  14. [13] Abrisa Technologies (2014)
  15. [14] Campbell and Hagy (1975)
  16. [15] Matweb
  17. [16] ASM International (1995)
  18. [17] Thompson (1980)
  19. [18] Gregory (1998)
  20. \(^\mathrm{a}\)Properties corresponding to a generic c-glass fiber
  21. \(^\mathrm{b}\)Calculated based on data from Inaba et al. (1999)
  22. \(^\mathrm{c}\)(III) Corresponds to \(\hbox {B}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) with \(\hbox {coordination number}=3\), (IV) to \(\hbox {B}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) with \(\hbox {coordination number}= 4\). The coordination number ratio for the Schott DURAN glass is calculated using the formulas proposed by Yun and Bray (1978). For the Poesia, Wertheim and Corning 0120 glass, a 100% fourfold coordination is assumed given the high alkali/boron ratio (Priven 2000; Zhdanov and Shmidel’ 1975).
  23. \(\hat{\,}\) Calculated using \(\hbox {V}_{\mathrm{i}}\) values from Makishima & Mackenzie (1972), and \(\hbox {G}_{\mathrm{i}}\) values from Inaba et al. (1999)
  24. \(\hat{\,}\hat{\,}\) The LVDT calculation results in a lower than expected Young’s modulus by approximately 15%, due to sensor errors. The provided data are only for comparison between the different glass types.
  25. \(\hat{\,}\hat{\,}\hat{\,}\) The reported E modulus is approx. 5% higher than in literature, partly due to testing errors and partly due to the material itself and its casting procedure