Oman is one of the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, most of the population being Muslim. It faces the severest water shortage in the world. Male Muslims are obliged to pray in mosques five times a day. Wudu (Ablution -a prescribed manner of body cleansing by water) is essential before each prayer. So, Ablution in mosques consumes the largest amount of water. Saving and reuse/recycling of ablution water will improve water management for the country and hence the region. Water conservation in mosques will also educate the population to conserve water. The main aim of this research was to explore options for improving water demand management in mosques. No empirical research has so far been reported in water management in mosques in the GCC region. The research quantified the amount of ablution water and evaluated water conservation appliances. It also explored social cultural and religious attitudes to reuse /recycle ablution water. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Forty-one key informant interviews, 120 observations and, 120 measurements using a water-smart flow meter were carried out in the research. The research found that 7 L of water per Wudu is being consumed while it could be done with 0.6 L of water. The study found that suitable policies for water use in mosques, installation of water conservation appliances, appropriate operating water pressure and a positive attitude towards reuse/recycling of ablution water will contribute to improving water management policies and practices for mosques.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Availability of data and materials
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article.
Abu-Rizaiza OS (2002) Ablution water: prospects for reuse in flushing of toilets at mosques, schools, and offices in Saudi Arabia. Eng Sci 14(2)
Adel Ali SA, Efaq Ali Noman; Radin Maya SRM, Bala JD, Amir Hashim MK (2018) Qualitative characterization of household greywater in developing countries: a comprehensive review. Book chapter: Management of greywater in developing countries: alternative practices, treatment and potential for reuse and recycling 2018 pp.1–31 ref.114
Al Mamun A, Muyibiand SA, Abdul Razak A (2013) Reuse potential of ablution water from IIUM Masjid. Proceedings of the International Conference on Biotechnology Engineering (ICBioE13), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Al-Maskti H (2011) Water demand management: a case study of the kingdom of Bahrain (Doctoral dissertation, © Hana Husain Al-Maskati)
Al-Shueili AAM (2014) Financial sustainability of the water sector in the Sultanate of Oman (Doctoral dissertation, © Al Shueili, AAM 2014)
AL-Washali T, Mahardani M, Sharma S, Arregui F, Kennedy M (2020) Impact of float-valves on water meter performance under intermittent and continuous supply conditions. Resour, Conservation Recycling 163
Amal AK (2019) Freshwater resources in the MENA region: risks and opportunities. https://www.mei.edu/publications/freshwater-resources-mena-region-risks-and-opportunities
Arnell NW (2004) Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Glob Environ Chang 14(1):31–52
Chen Y, Zhang D, Sun Y, Liu X, Wang N, Savenije HH (2005) Water demand management: a case study of the Heihe River Basin in China. Phys Chem Earth, Parts a/b/c 30(6–7):408–419
Droogers P, Immerzeel WW, Terink W, Hoogeveen J, Bierkens MFP, Van Beek LPH, Debele B (2012) Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 16(9):3101–3114
Garcia X, Pargament D (2015) Reusing wastewater to cope with water scarcity: economic, social, and environmental considerations for decision-making. Resour Conserv Recycl 101:154–166
Jamrah A, Al-Omari A, Al-Qasem L, Ghani NA (2006) Assessment of availability and characteristics of greywater in Amman. Water Int 31(2):210–220
Jamrah A, Al-Futaisi A, Prathapar S, Al Harrasi A (2008) Evaluating greywater reuse potential for sustainable water resources management in Oman. Environ Monit Assess 137(1–3):315
Kassim A, Sulaiman SM, Mohamed R, Al-Gheethi A (2017) Rainwater harvesting study at Masjid Jamek Riyahdus Solihin, Pintas Puding, Batu Pahat Johor Malaysia
Kayaga S, Smout I (2011) Water demand management in the city of the future: selected tools and instruments for practitioners. Water demand management in the city of the future: selected tools and instruments for practitioners
Kayaga S, Smout IK (2014) Tariff structures and incentives for water demand management
Lee M, Tansel B, Balbin M (2011) Influence of residential water use efficiency measures on household water demand: a four year longitudinal study. Resour Conserv Recycl 56(1):1–6
McConville JR, Kvarnström E, Jönsson H, Kärrman E, Johansson M (2017) Source separation: challenges & opportunities for transition in the Swedish wastewater sector. Resour Conserv Recycl 120:144–156
Mohamed RM, Al-Gheethi AA, Rahman JA, Kassim AH, Musa S (2017) Reuse of ablution water to improve peat soil characteristics for ornamental landscape plants cultivation. MATEC Web Conf. 103:05003. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20171030500
PAEW (2015) Public Authority of electricity and water. Annual Report Sultanate of Oman
PAEW (2016) Public Authority of electricity and water. Annual Report Sultanate of Oman
PAEW (2018) Public Authority of electricity and water. Annual Report Sultanate of Oman
Prathapar SA, Jamrah A, Ahmed M, Al Adawi S, Al Sidairi S, Al Harassi A (2005) Overcoming constraints in treated greywater reuse in Oman. Desalination 186(1–3):177–186
Prathapar SA, Ahmed M, Al Adawi S, Al Sidiari S (2004) Variation in quality and quantity of greywater produced at two mosques in Oman. In Proceedings of the International Wastewater Conference, Salalah, Oman
Rahman A (2005) Water in the GCC- towards on Integrated Water Resources in: The 7th Gulf Water Conference, 19–23 November 2005, State of Kuwait
Rahman A, Muneer M, Kaamin M, Mohamad MAH, Omar M, Hanif M (2016) ReWudhuk: a sustainable device to reuse musta’mal water for ablution purpose. Adv Sci Lett 22(9):2170–2173
Rahmat SN, Al-Gheethi AAS, Ayob S et al (2020) Development of dual water supply using rooftop rainwater harvesting and groundwater systems. SN Appl Sci 2:85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1862-9
Suratkon A, Chan CM, Ab Rahman TST (2014) SmartWUDHU’: recycling ablution water for sustainable living in Malaysia. J Sustain Dev 7(6):150
Tate DM (1990) Water demand management in canada: a state of the art review. Social Science Series No. 23. Inland Waters Directorate. Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) (2000). Global Water Partnership: GWP Secretariat, concerned with the management of water demand
Veldkamp TIE, Wada Y, Doell P (2017) Water scarcity hotspots travel downstream due to human interventions in the 20th and 21st century. Nat Commun 8:15697
Willis RM, Stewart RA, Panuwatwanich K, Jones S, Kyriakides A (2010) Alarming visual display monitors affecting shower end use water and energy conservation in Australian residential households. Resour Conserv Recycl 54(12):1117–1127
This paper is based on part of my Ph.D. dissertation (Titled: Water Demand Management in Mosques in Oman) at Loughborough University 2019. Link: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/288352071.pdf. I wish to thank Dr. Parameswari Kaliyaperumal Lecturer in Engineering Department/Civil & Arch in the University of Technology and Applied Science in Oman (Muscat) for her assistance with helpful comments and discussions.
Conflict of interest
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Al-Alawi, A., Sohail, M., Kayaga, S. et al. Water management in mosques of Oman. Sustain. Water Resour. Manag. 7, 95 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-021-00581-1